|Adams||Augustine Tolton||The marker is located at the NW corner of 7th & Maine Sts., Quincy, directly in front of St. Boniface Catholic Church.||39° 55.903||-091° 24.283||1974||Historical Society of Quincy and The Illinois State Historical Society||Father Tolton, the first Negro priest in the United States, was born of slave parents in Bush Creek, Missouri, in 1854. Educated at Quincy schools, he returned to this city after his ordination in Rome, Italy, in 1886. He celebrated his first public mass at St. Boniface Church in Quincy and later established St. Monica's Church for Negroes in Chicago. He died in Chicago in 1897, and is buried at St. Peter's Cemetery, Quincy.|
|Adams||Mormons in Quincy, The||The marker is located in Quincy's Washington Park, on the north side of Maine Street between 4th & 5th Streets.||39° 55.922||-091° 24.556||1976||Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and The Illinois State Historical Society||Mormons in Missouri were forced to flee their homes or face death because of an 'Extermination Order' issued in 1838 by Governor Lillburn Boggs. Many of them crossed into Illinois at Quincy and were made welcome by the people here. In April, 1839 they were joined by their leader Joseph Smith, who had been imprisoned on charges of treason since November 1838. Smith had long envisioned a great Mormon community. In May of 1839 he purchased land upriver from Quincy and set about building his city - Nauvoo. It became the center of Mormon life and by his death in 1844 was the largest city in Illinois.|
|Adams||Stephen A. Douglas in Quincy||The marker is located in Quincy on the south side of Maine Street, between 4th & 5th streets, across the street from Washington Park.||39° 55.879||-091° 24.596||10/1/2003||Adams County Bar Association, City of Quincy, Historical Society of Quincy and Adams County, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Statesman and politician Stephen A. Douglas began his distinguished national career in Quincy. A resident of the city from 1841-1847, he served as Associate Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court from 1841-1843, then in the U.S. House until he was elevated to the Senate in 1847. Douglas maintained a residence at the Quincy house located on this site. On October 13, 1858, Judge Douglas returned here, visiting old friends before crossing the street to share the lecture platform with Lincoln for the sixth debate in the statewide series that helped determine the outcome of the Senate race and shape the future of the nation. Douglas later referred to his years in Quincy as when "I was first placed upon a national career where I was ever after kept."|
|Adams||Thomas Scott Baldwin, 1858-1923||The marker is located in Quincy on the southeast corner of 30th & Maine Streets, at Baldwin Elementary School.||39° 55.886||-091° 22.064||1976||Quincy Service League and The Illinois State Historical Society||The home of Major Thomas Scott Baldwin, aviation pioneer, once stood at this location. Baldwin invented the first folding parachute here in 1887, and by the 1890's had become one of the highest paid parachute exhibitionists in the nation. He built the first successful airship for the Army Aviation Signal Corps in 1908. In 1915 he built the famous D-1 dirigible for the Navy and two years later became the chief of the newly formed Army Aviation Signal Corps. In 1964 he was named posthumously to the Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.|
|Adams||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located 2.5 miles north of Quincy, on the northeast corner of intersection US 24 and Illinois Route 96, facing US Route 24.||40° 00.503||-091° 22.023||1989||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchmen Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the American Revolution the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. U.S. Route 24 enters Illinois on the west at Quincy, site of the sixth debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858. It extends east towards the Illinois River cutting diagonally across the Military Tract, an area used as bounty land for veterans of the war of 1812. It passes near Dickson Mounds, a buriel site of the Mississippian culture circa 1100 A.D. Route 24 crosses the Illinois River at Peoria, a center of agricultural equipment manufacturing, and near the site of Fort Creve Coeur erected by the French explorer Sieur de LaSalle in 1680. It bisects Eureka, site of the college attended by Ronald Reagan the 40th President of the United States and the only one born in Illinois. The route continues due east through some of the richest farm land in the nation. In the years between 1840 and1890 huge herds of cattle were raised for sale to eastern markets. Corn and beans are the main crops today. Route 24 exits Illinois east of Watseka near the Old Hubbard Trace a fur trade route which linked the Wabash River area with the settlement of Chicago in the north. Along its approximate 260 mile length Route 24 passes through eleven of Illinois' 102 counties and seven of its county seats.|
|Alexander||Cairo, Illinois||This is one of two identical markers for Cairo. It is located just north of Cairo on the east side of IL 37 (old US 51) neear Urbandale, 1.5 miles north of the intersection with IL 127 and US 3.||37° 03.624||-089° 11.152||1986||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, a French Jesuit, reported as early as 1721 that the land at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers would be a strategic location for settlement and fortification. Nearly a century later, in 1818, the Illinois Territorial legislature incorporated the City and Bank of Cairo. But Cairo was then only a paper city, and plans for its development came to a standstill with the death of John Gleaves Comegys, the leading promoter of the Corporation.
In the 1830s, the area's commercial potential again captured the imagination of Illinois leaders and eastern investors. New City promoters incorporated the Cairo City and Canal Company and made elaborate plans for levees, canals, factories, and warehouses. The first levees failed to hold back the rampaging rivers and financial difficulties slowed the boom. Company policy to lease, not sell, city lots also retarded expansion. With the first sale of lots in 1853 and the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad from Chicago to Cairo late in 1854, the city began to prosper.
When the Civil War began, both Northern and Southern strategists recognized the military importance of Cairo. On April 22, 1861, ten days after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, troops arrived to hold Cairo for the Union. They established camps on the land south of Cairo, and the city flourished as a troop and supply center for the Army of General Ulysses S. Grant. Although the city bustled with wartime activity, non-military commerce was reoriented along East-West lines.
|Alexander||Cairo, Illinois||This is one of two identical markers for Cairo. It is located on the south end of the parking lot at the entrance to Fort Defiance State Park, which is at the junctions of US 51 and IL 60-62.||36° 59.240||-089° 09.007||5/6/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, a French Jesuit, reported as early as 1721 that the land at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers would be a strategic location for settlement and fortification. Nearly a century later, in 1818, the Illinois Territorial legislature incorporated the City and Bank of Cairo. But Cairo was then only a paper city, and plans for its development came to a standstill with the death of John Gleaves Comegys, the leading promoter of the Corporation.
In the 1830s, the area's commercial potential again captured the imagination of Illinois leaders and eastern investors. New City promoters incorporated the Cairo City and Canal Company and made elaborate plans for levees, canals, factories, and warehouses. The first levees failed to hold back the rampaging rivers and financial difficulties slowed the boom. Company policy to lease, not sell, city lots also retarded expansion. With the first sale of lots in 1853 and the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad from Chicago to Cairo late in 1854, the city began to prosper.
When the Civil War began, both Northern and Southern strategists recognized the military importance of Cairo. On April 22, 1861, ten days after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, troops arrived to hold Cairo for the Union. They established camps on the land south of Cairo, and the city flourished as a troop and supply center for the Army of General Ulysses S. Grant. Although the city bustled with wartime activity, non-military commerce was reoriented along East-West lines.
|Alexander||Steamboats on the Mississippi River||The marker is located just north of Thebes on IL 3, in a rest area on the west side of highway.||37° 13.567||-089° 27.599||3/11/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1817 the Zebulon M. Pike reached St. Louis, the northern-most steamboat port on the Mississippi River. The western steamboat of later years was a credit to the frontier American mechanic who drew upon experience to build a large craft (eventually over 300 by 40 feet) which would carry heavy cargoes in shallow water against the strong Mississippi current. Owners boasted that steamboats could run on heavy dew but in fact seasonal variations in river depth limited their use - medium sized steamboats needed at least four feet of water. The influence of the steamboat spread far and wide in the Mississippi Valley and hastened the development of the region.
Snags, explosions, collisions and fires sank many steamboats. An 1867 investigation recorded 133 sunken hulks in the Mississippi between Cairo and St. Louis, a stretch rivermen called the 'Graveyard.'
Even as the north-south river trade flourished in the 1850's, transportation lines running east and west developed. Railroads which followed a more direct route than winding rivers began to haul freight to and from the Mississippi Valley. Steamboats aided the north in the Civil War, but the reorientation of civilian commerce foreshadowed their decline. Although they continued to churn the Mississippi for the best of the nineteenth century, they were eventually replaced by strings of barges guided by a single steamboat or later by a diesel boat which transported the cargoes individual steamboats had once carried.
|Alexander||Tigress Flagpole, The||The marker is inside the U.S. Custom House Museum located at 1400 Washington Avenue (US Rt. 51) in downtown Cairo.||37° 00.130||-089° 10.281||1961||City of Cairo and the Illinois State Historical Society.||The River packet. TIGRESS, commandeered by the Union Army, carried General U. S. Grant up the Tennessee River to the battle of Shiloh on April 6, 1862. A year later the TIGRESS was sunk while running the shore batteries at Vicksburg, Mississippi. The crew survived and returned her flagpole to Cairo.|
|Alexander||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located in a rest area on IL Route 3, on the west side of highway, a short distance north of the intersection with Route 146 toward Cape Girardeau, MO.||37° 18.377||-089° 26.885||1983||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois country for France. By the 1763 treaty ending the French and Indian War, this area passed to England. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark's men captured it for the Commonwealth of Virgnia. Illinois was later governed as part of the Northwest Territory, Indiana Territory, and the Illinois Territory. In 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.
Permanent American settlers began arriving at the state's southwestern tip in 1805. Earthquakes rocked the Mississippi Valley in 1811, bringing refugees here in search of new homesites. After the War of 1812, another wave of settlers came, some bringing slaves. The newcomers raised cotton, flax, and tobacco. Later, they raised corn and wheat.
Northeast form here, at Jonesboro, Abraham Lincoln debated Stephen A. Douglas during the 1858 Senatorial campaign. During the Civil War, Cairo served as a major staging base where men and supplies were assembled before departing for the war zones. Mound City on the Ohio River was the principal depot for the Western River Fleet. Nearby is Thebes, once a bustling river port, the town declined when railroads replaced the steamboats, but the beautiful 1848 courthouse still stands. Nowadays, tourists and hunters are drawn to 'Egypt'-- Illinois' sixteen southernmost counties -- by the beauty of the Shawnee Forest and wildlife at Horseshoe Lake.
|Brown||Mt. Sterling, Illinois||The marker is located six miles east of Mt. Sterling, in a rest stop on the south side of US 24, just west of Ripley.||39° 59.604||-090° 40.626||1968||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1824 Cornelius Vandeventer, a native of Ohio, became the first permanent settler in this area. Additional pioneers came over the next few years from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina. In 1829 Alexander Curry purchased a claim on the site of the future Mt. Sterling. Curry and his family laid out the town in 1834. At that time, this area formed the southern part of Schuyler County. Two years later, attempts were made to move the county seat from Rushville to a location nearer to the center of the county. When these failed Brown County, named after General Jacob Brown, a veteran of the War of 1812, was created on February 1, 1839. Mt. Sterling was named the county seat the same year. It was on a major route of the western migration beginning in 1849 with the discovery of gold in California.
James Washington Singleton came to this area from Virginia around 1834 and lived in Mt. Sterling until 1854 when he moved to Quincy. A doctor, lawyer, and later a railroad executive, he became a brigadier general in the Illinois militia and served in the 'Mormon War' of 1844. He was also a delegate to two Illinois State Constitutional Conventions, a member of the Illinois Legislature, and a member of the U.S. Congress. Stephen A. Douglas held court in Mt. Sterling in 1841-1843 while circuit court judge Abraham Lincoln spoke here on October 19, 1858 while campaigning for the office of U.S. Senator.
|Bureau||Cherry Mine Disaster||The marker is located in Cherry, in Village Park on the north side of town on the west side of IL 89, at the intersection of Main and North streets.||41° 25.807||-089° 12.798||1971||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Just north of town are remnants of the Cherry Coal Mine, where 259 miners lost thier lives in one of the worst mine disasters in United States history.
The St. Paul Coal Company began mining coal at Cherry in 1905 and by 1909 was mining 300,000 tons annually. The owner and sole customer was the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad.
On Saturday, November 13, 1909, the mine caught fire. A load of hay, intended for the mule stables at the bottom of the mine, was apparently ignited by burning oil dripping from a kerosene torch. The fire spread rapidly. Several miners reached safety; others were trapped in the mine. The dead included twelve rescuers.
Public response to the needs of the victims was great. Individuals and organizations from various communities donated time and money. Chicago and other towns sent fire-fighting men and equipment.
More than $400,000 in relief funds was raised, and the Cherry Relief Commission was organized to distribute the funds. Another $400,000 was added as a result of the settlement made with the railroad company. John E. Williams of Streator, Vice-Chairman of the Cherry Relief Commission, acted as mediator between the relatives of the miners and the company.
The disaster promted the state legislature to establish stricter regulations for mine safety and to pass a Workmen's Compensation Act, making an employer liable even when there is contributory negligence.
|Bureau||Don Marquis||The marker is located in Walnut on the south side of IL 92 near Second Street, on the grounds of the Village offices.||41° 33.598||-089° 35.605||1972||Bryant Club, Walnut Rotary Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Don Marquis, American humorist, dramatist, and poet, was born in Walnut, July 29, 1878. In 1899 he went to Washington, D.C., where he began his career in journalism. He later worked on newspapers in Atlanta and New York City. In Atlanta he also wrote with Joel Chandler Harris for Uncle Remus' Magazine. In a column called the 'Sun Dial.' which he wrote for the New York evening Sun from 1913 to 1922, he created fictional characters whose conversations and antics expressed the author's commentaries on the times. The most popular characters were Archy, a literary cockroach, and Mehitabel, rowdy queen of the alley cats. Marquis died in 1937. His principal works number more than twenty-five.|
|Bureau||John Mitchell, 1870-1919||There are three identical markers in Spring Valley. This one is on the south side of Spring Valley at the southeast intersection of Spaulding Street (IL 89) and Caroline Street.||41° 19.235||-089° 11.975||11/1/1966||Spring Valley Rotary and Lions Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Pioneer resident of Spring Valley. Achieved national prominence in the settlement of the Pennsylvania anthracite miners strike in 1902 with the cooperation of President Theodore Roosevelt. President of the United Mine Workers, 1889-1908. Author of two widely-read books on union recognition. Often acclaimed as an enlightened and fair minded labor leader.|
|Bureau||John Mitchell, 1870-1919||There are three identical markers in Spring Valley. This one is on the corner of Strong Street and West Dakota Street (US 6).||41° 19.656||-089° 11.490||11/1/1966||Spring Valley Rotary and Lions Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Pioneer resident of Spring Valley. Achieved national prominence in the settlement of the Pennsylvania anthracite miners strike in 1902 with the cooperation of President Theodore Roosevelt. President of the United Mine Workers, 1889-1908. Author of two widely-read books on union recognition. Often acclaimed as an enlightened and fair minded labor leader.|
|Bureau||John Mitchell, 1870-1919||There are three identical markers in Spring Valley. This one was on the east side of Spring Valley at the intersection of Mary Street and East Dakota Street. It is currently missing.||41° 19.659||-089° 11.602||11/1/1966||Spring Valley Rotary and Lions Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Pioneer resident of Spring Valley. Achieved national prominence in the settlement of the Pennsylvania anthracite miners strike in 1902 with the cooperation of President Theodore Roosevelt. President of the United Mine Workers, 1889-1908. Author of two widely-read books on union recognition. Often acclaimed as an enlightened and fair minded labor leader.|
|Bureau||Owen Lovejoy Home||The marker is located near the east edge of Princeton, on the grounds of Lovejoy Historic Site. It is on US 6, at the intersection of Peru Street and Seventh Street.||41° 22.312||-089° 26.897||1972||Committee For the Restoration of the Owen Lovejoy Home and The Illinois State Historical Society||The two-story frame structure was the home of abolitionist Owen Lovejoy, who was born in Maine in 1811. Lovejoy moved into the house in 1838, when he became a Congregationalist minister. He was a leader in the formation of the Republican Party in Illinois, and he served as a Representative in the State Legislature, 1855-1857, and in the United States Congress from 1857 until his death in 1864. His home was well known as a shelter for runaway slaves. Owen was a younger brother of Elijah Lovejoy, abolitionist editor, who was killed by a mob at Alton in 1837.|
|Carroll||Helen Scott Hay||The marker is located on the grounds of the public library in Savanna on the southeast corner of Madison and Third Streets. Madison Street is several blocks east of Chicago Street.||42° 05.658||-090° 09.317||1970||American Legion Post No. 148 and Auxiliary, Carroll County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Helen Scott Hay, famous Red Cross nurse, was born near Lanark in this county. She was a graduate of Savanna High School, Northwestern University in Evanston, and the Illinois Training School for Nurses in Chicago, where she was later Superintendent. Before World War I she established a school of nursing in Bulgaria. At the outbreak of war she became Director of American Red Cross Nursing Personnel and was assigned to the Balkans. After America entered the war, whe served in Washington. In 1920 she was appointed Director of the European Work of the Red Cross. She died here in 1932.|
|Carroll||Lewiston Trail||The marker is located in a large turnout area, 3.3 miles west of Mt. Carroll in Center Hill Cemetery, just west of Center Hill Church along US 52/IL 64.||42° 04.869||-090° 02.568||1971||Carroll County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Lewistown Trail ran from Springfield to Galena via Lewistown. From 1827 to 1837 it was one of the main routes to the Galena Lead Mines. In general the trail ran in a northerly direction, crossing the Rock River at Prophetstown. It then zigzagged over the glaciated slopes of Carroll County and at this point turned northward again toward Plum River, six miles away. In 1837 when a state road was established to Galena via Savanna, this portion of the old trail became a local wagon road. By the 1850's it was a post road to the mill towns of Jacksonville and Polsgrove.|
|Carroll||Plum River Falls||The marker is located at the extreme southeast corner of Old Mill Park, just east of Savanna on US 52/IL 64.||42° 05.972||-090° 07.374||1968||Savanna Lions Club, Carroll County Historical Society, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Steamboats once navigated to this point, where Plum River Falls powered the saw, powder, grist, and flour mills at various times between 1836 and 1885. Near here the Rock Island Military and Prophetstown Trails to Galena were intersected as early as the 1830's by roads to Freeport, Rockford, Polo, and Milledgeville. On three occasions during the Black Hawk War, companies of mounted volunteers from Galena scoured this area for hostile Indians.|
|Carroll||Shimer College||The marker is located in Mount Carroll on the Shimer College campus near the entrance of the Campbell Center for Historic Preservation at 203 East Seminary Street at the intersection of Seminary Street and Clay Street.||42° 05.549||-089° 58.641||1968||Mount Carroll Community Club, Carroll County Historical Society, and the Illinois State Historical Society||Mount Carroll Seminary was founded as a coeducational institution in 1853 by Frances Ann Wood (later Mrs. Shimer). After the Civil War, enrollment was limited to women. Rechartered in 1896 as the Frances Shimer Academy of the University of Chicago, the school pioneered a junior college program. It became coeducation again in 1950 and adopted a four-year program in liberal education in 1958. In that year the Chicago affiliation was dissolved and the present name became official.|
|Carroll||Stone Arch Bridge on the Galena Road, A||The marker is located in a rest area on US 52/IL 64, just north of Brookville, near the Ogle/Carroll County line.||42° 03.895||-089° 42.115||9/29/1968||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Stone Arch Bridge that stands to the east of the present highway was on the Galena Road, once the most important trail in northern Illinois. Along this route innumerable people streamed northward to the lead mines near Galena every spring and many returned southward in the fall. The movement was likened to that of the fish called Sucker, from which the State received its nickname. This portion of the road from Dixon was surveyed in 1830 as the road from Woodbine Springs to Ogee's Ferry (later Dixon's Ferry, now Dixon), replacing the longer 1825 Kellogg's Trail and the 1826 Boles' Trail. Roads from Peoria and Chicago joined at Dixon and continued as one to Galena. Mail and stagecoach lines traveled the Peoria - Galena route as early as 1830 and the Chicago - Galena route by 1834. Here the road intersected the earlier Gratiot's Trail, which also ran from Dixon to Galena but extended farther north to avoid the rough terrain. During the Black Hawk War in 1832, militia and regular army troops marched on both trails. Abraham Lincoln, as a private in the company of Captain Elijah Iles, camped overnight near here, June 8 and 12. As a private in the independent spy company of Jacob M. Early, Lincoln made a forced march to Kellogg's Grove (near Kent), arriving there June 26, the day after the last battle fought in Illinois during that War. Isaac Chambers, who was not only the first settler of Ogle County at Buffalo Grove near Polo but also of Lima Township here in Carroll County, operated a stage coach inn nearby and a sawmill on Elkhorn Creek two miles to the southeast.|
|Carroll||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker was located 1.2 miles east of Savanna on the south side of US 52/IL 64. It is currently missing.||7/29/1864||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Illinois acquired the fourteen northern counties because of the forsight of Nathaniel Pope, congressional delegate from the Illinois territory. His amendment to the Statehood Act moved the upper boundary from an east - west line through the tip of Lake Michigan to the present location. US 52 passes a variety of scenic and historic sites. The Mississippi Palisades, north of Savanna, and the White Pines forest, east of Polo, preserve the natural beauty of the area. In Dixon the statue of Abraham Lincoln as a soldier in the Black Hawk War and in the Lowden State Park near Oregon the towering Indian statue recall the exciting year 1832 when a band of Sauk and Fox Indians terrorized the settlers in northern Illinois.|
|Cass||Cass County Courthouse||The marker is located in Virginia in the southwest part of town at 431 West Beardstown Street where it intersects with North Hall St. It is on the north side of the street.||39° 57.168||-090° 12.984||1988||The Virginia City Council, Cass County Historical Society, and the Illinois State Historical Society||This is the site of the first building erected as a seat of government of Cass County, Illinois, on land provided by Dr. H. H. Hall, the founder of Virginia. Circuit Court was held here for the first time in May 1839, and the last session, October 8, 1844. Abraham Lincoln attended a meeting of the Cass County Clay Club held here February 22, 1844, when Henry Clay was a presidential candidate. Following the removal of the County Seat to Beardstown in 1845, the building was used for a school until 1975. Faith Baptist Church purchased the property May 31, 1981.|
|Cass||Chandlerville||This is one of two identical markers in Chandlerville. It is located on the west side of Chandlerville on the southeast side of IL 78 where English Avenue (River Street) crosses the highway. This was once the right-of-way for the Jacksonville-Havana Railroad.||40° 03.036||-090° 08.690||1966||Chandlerville Improvement Council and The Illinois State Historical Society||Founded 1832 by Dr. Charles Chandler of Rhode Island.|
|Cass||Chandlerville||This is one of two identical markers in Chandlerville. It is located on the southeast side of Chandlerville on the north side of the Oakford-Chandlerville blacktop, just east of its intersection with Fifth Street.||40° 02.882||-090° 09.243||1966||Chandlerville Improvement Council and The Illinois State Historical Society||Founded 1832 by Dr. Charles Chandler of Rhode Island.|
|Cass||Virginia||This is one of four identical markers. It is located in Virginia at the intersection IL 125 and IL 78 in front of Cass Consumer Service.||1966||Virginia Women's Club and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Women's Club, City of Virginia and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Illinois State Historical Society||County Seat of Cass County. Founded 1830 by Dr. H. H. Hall.|
|Cass||Virginia||This is one of four identical markers. It is located in Virginia on the north side of IL 125.||1966||Virginia Women's Club and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Women's Club, City of Virginia and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Illinois State Historical Society||County Seat of Cass County. Founded 1830 by Dr. H. H. Hall.|
|Cass||Virginia||This is one of four identical markers. It is located in Virginia on US 67 on the line between the Sudbrink and Kerry properties.||1966||Virginia Women's Club and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Women's Club, City of Virginia and the Illinois State Historical Society Virginia Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Illinois State Historical Society||County Seat of Cass County. Founded 1830 by Dr. H. H. Hall.|
|Cass||Virginia||This is one of four identical markers. It is located north of Virginia on the north side US 67 in front of Kerry Farm Supply.||1966||County Seat of Cass County. Founded 1830 by Dr. H. H. Hall.|
|Christian||Christian County Courthouse: 1840-1856||The marker is located in the southeast part of Taylorville, just northwest of the intersection of IL 48 and IL 49. The marker is near the entrance to the Christian County Heritage Historical Museum.||39° 33.149||-089° 16.615||6/29/2003||Christian County Historical Society, Bertrand Hopper Memorial Foundation, Illinois State Historical Society, Taylorville Park District and Taylorville Tourism Council||The first courthouse of Christian County (originally Dane County) was built in 1840 for $2,350. It was located in the center of Taylorville's public square. Court was held on the lower level with county officers sharing the upstairs floor. Since the circuit court came to town only twice each year, the courtroom was available at other times for use by county commissioners or for public functions.
Until 1853, Christian County was part of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. A judge would travel to all county seats in the circuit twice each year to hear cases. The circuit was almost 450 miles long and took almost three months to complete by horse and buggy.
Abraham Lincoln was one of the attorneys who traveled the Eighth Circuit and came to Taylorville. He had trials in this courthouse before Judge David Davis, whom he later appointed to the United States Supreme Court. During one trial, Lincoln was interrupted by a loud noise from the hogs underneath the courthouse. In mock earnestness, he asked Judge Davis to issue a "writ of quietus" requiring the sheriff to abate the nuisance!
This courthouse was replaced with a new one in 1856 and sold for $267. It was moved several times before being placed on these museum grounds in honor.
|Clark||Darwin||The marker is located in the community of Darwin at the intersection of Darwin Ferry Road and Union Street.||39° 17.118||-087° 36.796||1968||The Clark County Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||Darwin was the Clark County Seat from 1823 to 1838. The County Courthouse was one block south from 1819 to 1823. The County Seat was Aurora, once located two miles north. Two blocks east was the Darwin Steamboat Landing on the Wabash River. The Darwin Ferry, established in 1818, still operates just south of the landing. River traffic once made Darwin the leading distributing point for towns as far as sixty miles away.|
|Clark||Fort Handy||The marker is located adjacent to a park, on the south edge of West Union on Walnut Street (1900 Street).||39° 12.458||-087° 39.692||1967||The West Union 4-H Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||Fort Handy, built in 1816, was located 1200 feet southeast of this park on a knoll. The fort, the only structure of its kind in Clark County, was built by the family of Thomas Handy and contained three cabins and a well surrounded by a bulletproof palisade.|
|Clark||Illinois Search for Petroleum (missing)||The marker was located one mile south of Westfield in a rest area park on IL 49. It is currently missing.||39° 26.218||-087° 59.264||1976||Clark County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Discovery of oil in Pennsylvania in 1859 created nationwide interest. Signs of petroleum had been observed in Illinois long before 1865 when one of the first wells was drilled about three miles south and 1/4 mile west of here. This well was unsuccessful but the drillers believed oil was present and formed the Clark County Petroleum and Mining Company in 1866. Later a nearby town was named Oilfield. The company lost interest because poor drilling methods kept most of the oil trapped underground. Improved technology led to a successful well being drilled near here in 1905.|
|Clark||Margaretta Post Office||The marker is located 4.7 miles east of Westfield on the Lincoln Heritage Trail (County Road 2120 N, also called Clarksville Road)||39° 27.613||-087° 54.004||1968||Clark County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood Margaretta Post Office, which served many northwestern communities of Clark County from 1840 to 1861. It was named for Margaret, wife of the Postmaster, William B. Marrs. Mail was carried to the post office first in saddlebags by horseback and later in portmanteaus by stagecoach. Marrs was a Representative in the State Legislature, 1836-1837. He was also a Justice of the Peace, 1835-1837, and a Supervisor of Roads in 1842.|
|Clark||Old Stone Arch Bridge||The marker is located west of Marshall on Archer Avenue (Old US 40), outside the city limits at Oak Crest Subdivision, adjacent to the bridge.||39° 23.188||-087° 42.510||1976||Clark County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This bridge was completed by army engineers sometime between 1834 and 1837 as a part of the Old National Road. The road, between Cumberland, Maryland and Vandalia, Illinois was authorized by the Enabling Act of 1803 and was the nation's first federally financed highway. The bridge is a prime example of the stone-building art and early American engineering. Stones were precisely cut and fitted together without bond or mortar. Many stone arch bridges were built along the Cumberland Road, but this was the only one still in use at the time of the marker dedication.|
|Clark||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located near Marshall on the south side of US 40, 1.5 miles west of Indiana State Line.||7/24/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Seven years earlier the National Road began in the east and gradually pushed west as a major route for emigrants, freight wagons and stage coaches. Surveyors marked the route from this point to Vandalia in 1828 and construction in Illinois, limited by Congress to grading and bridging, began. The road was a track of dust or mud around ungrubbed trees and, as an English traveler found in 1842, deep holes in the center of the roadbed from which a settler had taken clay for his chimney. Early in the twentieth century the development of the automobile led to demands for better roads. The National Road became a part of the cross-country National Old Trails Road, now U.S. 40, and was marked by red, white and blue bands on wayside posts.|
|Clark||Westfield College||The marker is located in the southwest part of Westfield, at the corner of South Street and Fulton Street.||39° 27.114||-087° 59.993||1969||Clark County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||For more than fifty years Westfield College was located on this site. It was founded as a seminary in 1861 by the United Brethren in Christ and incorporated as a college in 1865. The school was coeducational from the beginning and in some years granted both Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. Its peak enrollment, reached in 1909, was 160. It closed in June 1914. Three years later the old college building, then being used by Westfield Township High School, was destroyed by fire.|
|Clay||Lewis Baldwin Parsons||The marker is located north of Flora and just south of US 50 and US 45 and their intersection with North Stanford road. It is on the north edge of the parking lot for Floyd Henson School.||38° 40.725||-088° 28.230||1986||Clay County Civil War Round Table and The Illinois State Historical Society||Near this site was the home of Brevet Major General Lewis B. Parsons, who lived in Flora from 1875 until his death in 1907. Born in New York in 1818, Parsons graduated from Harvard Law School and began practice in Alton, Illinois. In 1854 he moved to St. Louis, where he became president of the Ohio & Mississippi and in 1864 was placed in charge of river and rail transportation for the entire army.|
|Clinton||General Dean Suspension Bridge||The marker is located on the west end of the General Dean Suspension Bridge, which crosses the Kaskaskia River, at the foot of Fairfax Avenue, directly below the Carlyle Lake Dam. There are public access areas on both sides of the river, just east of the town of Carlyle.||38° 36.668||-089° 21.491||1976||Carlyle Junior Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||This bridge was built in 1859 at a cost of $40,000 and used for nearly seventy years. Previously, travelers at Carlyle crossed the Kaskaskia by ferry or on a mud bridge supported by logs. The Historic American Buildings Survey recognized the architectural significance of this bridge in 1950 and recommended its preservation. In 1951 the State Legislature appropriated $20,000 for restoration work. The bridge was named in honor of Major General William F. Dean, a Korean War hero and Carlyle native, in 1953. As of 1976 this was the only suspension bridge in Illinois.|
|Coles||Charleston Riot, The||The marker is located in Charleston on the southeast corner of the County Courthouse on the Public Square at the intersection of Seventh and Jackson.||39° 29.680||-088° 10.487||1977||Coles County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||On March 28, 1864, a gunfight erupted here between Union soldiers and Civil War opponents known as 'Copperheads.' In eastern Illinois, many Democrats were pro-southern while the Republicans were uniformly pro-Union. Disturbances had occurred earlier in the area, and Copperheads had been killed in Mattoon and Paris. In March, 1863, at Charleston there had been a highly controversial trial of Union deserters. On the day of the riot a large crowd had gathered here for a Democratic rally. Union soldiers were in town on leave. Drinking and fighting led to gunfire. Nine men killed and twelve wounded before troops arrived from Mattoon and quelled the disturbance.|
|Coles||Confederate Operatives in Mattoon||At the intersection of Western Avenue and US-45 (Il-121) Mattoon, IL||39° 48273||-088° 37827||0/0/0000||The City of Mattoon The Mattoon Community Trust The Mattoon Chamber of Commerce Intrepid Consulting Services, Inc. The Illinois State Historical Society September 2014||Draft ISHS Commemorative Marker Text Confederate Operatives in Mattoon With the fortunes of conventional warfare turning rapidly against the Confederate States of America in early 1864, the Confederate government chose to embark on a formal campaign of behind-the-lines insurrection, subversion and sabotage in the North. The Confederates opted to employ Toronto-based military personnel and pro-Southern sympathizers in the North known as Copperheads to achieve their aims. Their objectives included the release rebel prisoners of war to create a Confederate Army of the North for traditional military operations, to take over state governments and undertake destructive operations that would hinder the Union war effort. Although encompassing activities along the entire Canadian frontier, the states of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio were the focus of this campaign which became known as the Northwest Conspiracy. In September of 1864, after the failed Chicago Revolt operation during the Democratic Party's National Convention, special operators of the Confederate Canadian Squadron, under the command of Captain Thomas Henry Hines and his colleague Captain John B. Castleman withdrew to Mattoon and Marshall, Illinois. The Canadian Squadron operators in central Illinois were Confederate officers, former cavalrymen and escaped prisoners of war recruited by Hines to conduct clandestine operations within the region. While based in Mattoon and Marshall, Hines and his men conducted numerous successful clandestine missions, including the destruction of federal warehouses in Mattoon and river steamers on the St. Louis waterfront. The Canadian Squadron's activities provided covert tactical concepts adhered to by the United States Office of Strategic Services during World War II and the OSS's successor, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.|
|Coles||Home of Dr. Hiram Rutherford||The marker is located in the town of Oakland on the lawn of the Rutherford home on the northeast corner of Il. Rt. 133 and Walnut Street.||39° 39.252||-088° 01.634||1972||Oakland Landmarks, Inc. and The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the home of Dr. Hiram Rutherford, who was involved in 1847 in a case in which Abraham Lincoln represented a slaveholder. Rutherford and Gideon Ashmore harbored a family of slaves who had sought their help. The slaves belonged to Robert Matson, a Kentuckian who had brought them north to work on his farm. While the slaves were being sheltered in Ashmore's tavern, Matson obtained a court order to have the slaves jailed. Rutherford and Ashmore sued out a writ of habeas corpus for their release. Matson then hired Lincoln. The Circuit Court, after a hearing, freed the slaves.|
|Coles||Last Lincoln Farm, The||The marker is located south of Charleston at the west entrance to the Lincoln Log Cabin State Park on County Road 1668.||39° 22.812||-088° 12.567||1934||State of Illinois||In 1837, Thomas Lincoln erected a cabin on a tract of land situated one-half mile to the east. Here he resided until his death in 1851. Abraham Lincoln visited here frequently, and after 1841 held title to forty acres of land on which his parents lived. The State of Illinois now owns most of the Lincoln farm.|
|Coles||Lincoln Farm 1831-1834||The marker is located southwest of Charleston, on the north side of Coles County 3399 N (Lincoln Heritage Road), one half mile east of Meadow View Golf Course.||39° 25.229||-088° 20.747||1934||State of Illinois||From 1831 to 1834 Thomas and Sarah Lincoln, father and stepmother of Abraham Lincoln, lived in a cabin which stood a short distance to the north. It was their first home in Coles County, and their second home in Illinois.|
|Coles||Lincoln Farm 1834-1837||The marker is located one mile southwest of Lerna, on the north side of Lincoln Highway Road, one-fourth mile east of the railroad.||39° 24.294||-088° 18.230||1934||State of Illinois||In 1834 Thomas Lincoln purchased 40 acres situated about 400 yards north and east of this point. Here, with his wife Sarah, he lived until 1837, when he sold the land. It was his second home in Coles County.|
|Coles||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||The marker is located in Charleston, on the east side of Coles County Fairgrounds, near the Lincoln-Douglas Debate sculpture at the Visitor's Information Center.||39° 29.796||-088° 11.218||1935||State of Illinois||On September 18, 1858, the fourth of the famous joint debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas was held approximately one-quarter mile south of here. Twelve thousand people heard the two candidates for the United States Senatorship discuss the question of slavery in American politics.|
|Coles||Moore House||The marker is located southwest of Charleston in the community of Campbell, on the west side of Lincoln Highway. It is located on the grounds of the Moore House Historical Site.||39° 23.753||-088° 12.667||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||Here on January 31, 1861 President-elect Abraham Lincoln visited his stepmother Mrs. Sarah Bush Lincoln and her daughter Mrs. Reuben Moore (Matilda Johnston). This was his last visit to Coles County before leaving Illinois for his inauguration. Mrs. Lincoln returned with him to Charleston that night and their farewells were said the next morning.|
|Coles||Shiloh Cemetery||The marker is located about 1.5 miles southwest of Campbell and 1.5 miles northwest of Lincoln Log Cabin State Park at the entrance to Shiloh Cemetery, which is on the east of side Lincoln Highway (County Road 80). The marker is just west of the Church.||39° 23.247||-088° 14.201||1934||State of Illinois||In Shiloh Cemetery are the graves of Thomas and Sarah Lincoln, father and stepmother of Abraham Lincoln. On January 31, 1861, shortly before assuming the Presidency, Lincoln came here from Springfield to visit his father's grave in company of his stepmother.|
|Coles||Site of the Lincoln Cabin||The marker is located in the extreme southern part of Lincoln Log Cabin State Park, facing south on the north side of County Road 30N.||39° 22.725||-088° 12.144||1934||State of Illinois||The Lincoln Cabin stood approximately 200 feet north of this point.|
|Coles||Ulysses S. Grant in Mattoon||The marker is located in Mattoon, near the Amtrak Station, at the intersection of 17th Street and Broadway.||39° 28.951||-088° 22.526||1968||City of Mattoon and The Illinois State Historical Society||On May 15, 1861, Ulysses S. Grant mustered in the seventh district regiment in Mattoon. As recruiting officer, Grant had neither uniform nor commission. A month later, as a colonel, Grant took command of the group, renamed the 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Of the 1,250 original enlistees, 603 marched with Grant into battle.|
|Cook||1992 River West Gas Fires||The marker is located in Chicago abouth 3/4 mile northwest of the Loop, one block east of I-90/I-94 (Kennedy Expressway). It is mounted on the wall of a building at 911 North Willard Court just north of its intersection with North Milwaukee Avenue .||41° 37.661||-087° 51.661||7/1/2008||Timothy O’Mahoney and the Illinois State Historical Society||At 4 p.m. on January 17, 1992, a series of explosions and fires ravaged the River West Community. The fires were in an area bounded by the Chicago River, the Kennedy Expressway, and Kinzie and Division Streets. The devastation was caused by over-pressurization of the natural gas pipelines leading to homes and businesses. Two hundred and twenty-five fire fighters responded to the emergency. The disaster resulted in 4 fatalities and 18 buildings destroyed or damaged. Initially the increase in pressure was attribued to a faulty regulator. However, after lengthy investigations, the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) determined that a Peoples Gas Company crew was responsible. While doing routine maintenance on gas pressure regulators valves in a vault at Erie and Green streets, the crew failed to monitor downstream pressure when the pressure regulators were off-line. Normal gas pressure of 1/4 PSI soared to at least 10 PSI -- 40 times the normal pressure. The extreme pressure caused hissing noises in stoves, furnaces, and space heaters. Many individuals shut off their gas service, thereby saving lives and properties. Based on recommendations by the ICVC and the NTSB, regulators valves that once controlled entire neighborhoods were replaced by individual regulators at each building. Increased training for gas crews was also initiated. The marker is mounted at 911 North Willard Street, one of the original buildings damaged by the River West Fires.|
|Cook||Battle of Fort Dearborn||The marker is located in Chicago, where 18th Street meets Calumet Avenue, 1820 South Calumet Avenue, just south of the railroad tracks.||41° 51.457||-087° 37.172||8/1/2009||Alderman Robert W. Fioretti, U.S. Daughters of 1812, Prairie District Neighborhood Alliance, Glessner House Museum, Amerian Indian Center, and the Illinois State Historical Society||Battle of Fort Dearborn - August 15, 1812 From roughly 1620 to 1820, the territory of the Potawatomi extended from what is now Green Bay, Wisconsin, to Detroit, Michigan, and included the Chicago area. In 1803, the United States Government built Fort Dearborn at what is today Michigan Avenue and Wacker Drive as part of a strategic effort to protect lucrative trading in the area from the British. During the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain, some Indian tribes allied with the British to stop the westward expansion of the United States and to regain lost Indian lands. On August 15, 1812, more than fifty US soldiers and 41 civilians, including nine womenand 18 children, were ordered to evacuate Fort Dearborn. This group, almost the entire population of US citizens in the Chicago area, marched south from Fort Dearborn along the shoreline of Lake Michigan until they reached this approximate site, where they were attached by about 500 Potawatami. In the battle and aftermath, more than 60 of the evacuees and 15 Native Americans were killed. The dead included Army Captain William Wells, who had come from Fort Wayne with Miami Indians to assist in the evacuation, Naunongee, Chief of the Village of Potawatomi Ojibwe, and the Ottawa Indians, known as the Three Fires Confederacy. In the 1830s, the Potowatami of Illinois were forcibly removed to lands west of the Mississippi. Potawatomi Indian Nations continue to thrive in Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Canada, and more than 36,000 American Indians from a variety of tribes reside in Chicago today.|
|Cook||Bertha Van Hoosen, M.D.||The marker is located in Chicago in the South Lobby of the Fine Arts Building at 410 South Michigan Avenue.||39° 43.372||-090° 13.786||1992||Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy and The Illinois State Historical Society||At this site on November 18, 1915, was founded the American Medical Women's Association, dedicated to the support of women physicians and women's health. As its founder and first president, Bertha Van Hoosen, M.D., demonstrated her dedication to the women's medical movement and her lifetime commitment to humanity as a physician whose compassion for people equalled her comprehension of science. Always at the forefront of medical knowledge, Dr. Van Hoosen's involvement in medical technology included the development of "Twilight Sleep," a procedure used in natural childbirth. During her 58 years of practice in Chicago she was a lifetime learner and dedicated teacher. Her students are a tribute to her ultimate commitment to the patients and physicians in the medical profession.|
|Cook||Bloom High School||The marker is located in Chicago Heights at 101 West 10th Street.||41° 30.798||-087° 38.703||5/1/1991||Bloom High School Historic Place Committee and The Illinois State Historical Society||Bloom High School was built in 1931-34 to serve all of the students in Bloom Township High School District 206. The main structure of the art deco building was designed by the architectural firm of Royer, Danely and Smith of Urbana, Illinois. Major additions were completed in 1956 and 1976. The building was accepted into the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, thereby becoming the first public high school in Illinois to be so recognized. Noteworthy enhancements include tow Bedford limestone sculptures at the main entrance, designed by Felix Schlag and by Curtis Drewes, and the authentic frescoes inside the entrance, created by Edgar Britton in 1935.|
|Cook||Brunswick Corporation Headquarters||The marker is located in Chicago at 623 South Wabash.||41° 52.458||-087° 37.560||6/20/1995||The Illinois State Historical Society and the Brunswick Corporation||For over a half century, this building housed the headquarters of the Company which has come to be known as Brunswick Corporation. Then called the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, it moved here in 1913 after a fire destroyed its previous home. The Company subsequently became Brunswick Corporation in 1960 and its corporate offices remained here until 1964 when new quarters were built. Brunswick is a world leader in the fields of recreation and leisure, and is metropolitan Chicago's oldest, continuously independent public company. This marker is dedicated in recognition of The Company's 150th Anniversary in 1995.|
|Cook||Burial Site of Josette Beaubien||The marker is located in Franklin Park, near the Des Plaines River, near the east of the intersection of River Road and King Avenue.||41° 56.432||-087° 51.174||5/21/2006||Village of Franklin Park and the Illinois State Historical Society||Josette Beaubien, a survivor of the Fort Dearborn Massacre, was buried here in 1845. She was married to Jean Baptiste Beaubien, one of Chicago's first settlers. Her brother was Claude LaFramboise, a chief of the Potawatomie Indians. Chief Alexander Robinson and Claude LaFramboise, local Native Americans, were rewarded with large tracts of land after the War of 1812. These properties composed much of Franklin Park and Schiller Park. Eventually this site was sold to the Schultz family. The original plot survey details this burial site. It is approximately twenty-feet square and additional graves are present.|
|Cook||Camp Douglas||0/0/0000||Sponsored by the Camp Douglas Restoration Foundation, Alderman Robert Fioretti, Chicago Civil War Round Table, Salt Creek Civil War Round Table, Thornton Township Historical Society, and The Illinois State Historical Society.||CAMP DOUGLAS Named in honor of the late Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas, from whose estate nearly 60 acres of land were donated, Camp Douglas, established in 1861, was the earliest and largest Union military camp in the Chicago area. The camp stretched from 31st Street to 33rd Place and from Cottage Grove Avenue to the east to South Giles Avenue to the west. Planned as one of the largest Union training camps, it was one of the few camps in the North to train African-American soldiers. More than 25,000 Union soldiers and approximately 30,000 Confederate prisoners were housed here during the Civil War. Ill-designed and inadequate as a containment site for Confederate Army prisoners of war, Camp Douglas was remembered by survivors for its poor living conditions, overcrowding, inadequate medical treatment, bitter weather conditions, and a shortage of food. These factors gave rise to the high mortality rate among the Confederates imprisoned here. While the precise number of prisoners who died at Camp Douglas is unknown, there are more than 6,000 Confederates buried in historic Oak Woods Cemetery at 1035 E. 67th Street. Historians debate reports of a prisoner breakout plot and plan to seize Chicago for the Confederacy. Camp Douglas was closed by November 1865.|
|Cook||Camp Thornton||The marker is located in Thornton in Sweet Woods Park which is on the west side of Cottage Grove Avenue just below its intersection with 183rd Street. The marker is located along a walking path, just inside the entrance to the forest preserve.||41° 33.361||-087° 35.777||5/1/2010||The Village of Thornton Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||Camp Thornton #2605 and the Civil Conservation Corps Camp Motto: " String Along" In the spring of 1934, Camp Thornton opened on this site as a home ot young men of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). At first, the men slept in tents in grass and weeds three feet tall. Later they built their own military style barracks with mess halls, washrooms, toilets, showers, office quarters, lounge, and parade grounds. The CCC was formed by the federal government during the Great Depression to help unemployed men and their families. The men enlisted for six months at a time; 18 months was the maximum length of service. CCC workers received $31 per month, $25 of which was sent home to their families. Army and Naval Reserve Officers governed the Corps. Civilian men taught trades, including concrete construction, bricklaying, carpentry, machinery operation, and tree planting. Beautiful flagstone picnic shelters, roadways, and bridges built by the CCC can still be seen throughout the Cook County Forest Preserves and other local, state, and national parks around the country. Camp Thornton existed until 1942. From June 1945 through April 1946, the camp was used as a German P.O.W. Camp. It was also home to Illiana Christian High School from September 1946 through December 1947. The South Suburban Council of Girl Scouts began using the facilities as a camp beginning in 1951. The last portions of the camp were demolished in 1989. Foundations can sitll be seen south of this marker.|
|Cook||Chicago Portage, The||The marker is located in Lyons in the Forest Preserve at 4800 South Harlem Avenue. The park is on the west side of Harlem Avenue just north of I-55.||41° 48.327||-087° 48.170||3/1/2009||The Forest Preserve District of Cook County, the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor Civil Center Authority, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Here you stand at the west end of a 7.5 mile long water and overland travel route across the continental divide between the St. Lawrence and Mississippi River systems, known as Chicago Portage. Well-known to Native Americans, the route was first visited by Europeans more than 300 years ago. It became a major gateway for exploration and pioneer expansion to the west and for the fur trade in both directions. This remaining protected portion of the Chicago Portage Route is little changed from the time Fr. Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, Sieur de LaSalle, Henri de Tonty, and Antoine Ouilmette, Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, Antoine Beaubien, John Crafts, John Kinzia, Gurdon S. Hubbard, and numerous missionaries, soldiers, pioneers, voyageurs and traders passed through here. In 1821, the original portage route was mapped by John Walls. In 1848, the Illinois and Michigan Canal was built along the route. In 1907, the Sanitary and Ship Canal was built and remains in use today. This land was purchasd from the Chicago Sanitary District on August 3, 1950, and is now owned and protected by the Forest Preserve District of Cook County. The Chicago Portage was officially designated a National Historic Site in non-Federal ownership by the Department of the Interior on January 3, 1952. It is one of only two National Historic Sites in the State of Illinois.|
|Cook||Dixie Highway, The||The marker is located in Homewood, IL.||41° 33.603||-087° 39.840||5/1/2003||Village of Homewood Heritage Committee, the Homewood Historical Society, and the Illinois State Historical Society||The Dixie Highway was the first national road linking industrial northern states to agricultural southern states. Governors of several states met in 1915 to consider an improved road to Miami. States lobbied for inclusion, resulting in eastern and western divisions running through ten states. In Illinois, the road started in Chicago, traveled through Blue Island, Homewood, and Chicago Heights, then followed what is today Route 1 down to Danville. There it turned east to Indiana. By 1923, the Dixie Highway consisted of a network of 6,000 improved roadway miles.
The Dixie Highway Association took over the work begun by the governors. Many counties funded and built the highway in their area; poorer counties required federal aid and private subscriptions. Citizens took paintbrushes in hand to paint "DH" in red and white on poles, marking the way for travelers. Gas stations and mechanics were sparse. Motorists carried extra gas and tools. Tourists packed tents or rented rooms. Soon tourists camps, cabins, roadside diners, and service garages sprouted. The route played a significant role in both world wars as a path for carrying supplies.
The Dixie Highway follows one of the oldest and most historical trails. Native Americans and trapper-traders used a path worn by animals along the eastern Illinois border. In the 1820s, Gurdon Saltenstall Hubbard established trading posts along the route, which is identified as Hubbard's Trace and Vincennes Trail on old maps. In 1835, the Illinois General Assembly ordered a state road to be established and mile markers to be placed theron.
|Cook||Eastland Disaster, The||The marker is located in downtown Chicago, just south of the Chicago River, at the northeast corner of LaSalle Street and Wacker Drive||41° 53.218||-087° 37.940||6/4/1989||7/24/2003||The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, the Eastland Disaster Historical Society, the City of Chicago, and The Illinois State Historical Society||While still partially tied to its dock at the river's edge, the excursion steamer Eastland rolled over on the morning of July 24, 1915. The result was one of the worst maritime disasters in American history. More than eight hundred people lost their lives within a few feet of the shore. The Eastland was filled to overflowing with picnic bound Western Electric Company employees and their families when the tragedy occurred. Investigations following the disaster raised questions about the ship's seaworthiness and inspection of Great Lakes steamers in general.|
|Cook||Green Bay Trail, The||US 41, Scott avenue and Green Bay Rd., Glencoe||4/28/1963||The Lake Shore Chapter, Daughters of the American Colonists and The Illinois State Historical Society.||One branch of the Green Bay Trail traversed this region. Originally an Indian Trail, after 1816 the route connected Fort Dearborn at Chicago with Fort Howard at Green Bay. Couriers faced hunger, cold and Indians to carry on a round trip which took a month.|
|Cook||Haymarket Riot (Missing)||Haymarket Square, Randolph and Des Plaines Sts., Chicago (Missing)||10/10/1970||The Illinois Labor History Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||On May 4, 1886, hundreds of workers gathered here to protest police action of the previous day against strikers engaged in a nationwide campaign for an eight-hour workday. Radicals addressed the crowd. When policeman attempted to disperse the rally, someone threw a bomb. The bomb and ensuing pistol shots killed seven policeman and four other persons. Although no evidence linked the radicals to the bomb, eight of them were convicted and four hanged. Three were later pardoned. The Strike collapsed after the tragedy.|
|Cook||John H. Humphrey Home||The marker is located in Orland Park, one-fourth mile west of US 45. It is on the grounds of the Humphrey Home, which houses the Orland Historical Society, at the intersection of Beacon Avenue and West 144th Place (9830 West 144th Place).||41° 37.663||-087° 51.545||3/1/2007||Orland Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||This house was the home of Illinois State Senator John H. Humphrey (1838-1914). Born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, Humphrey immigrated to America with his parents in 1848 and settled in Orland Township, Cook County, Illinois. Humphrey became active in local politics and served as Orland Township Supervisor, Village Treasurer, and later as Orland Park's first president (Mayor). Elected to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1880 and in 1884, he advanced to the Illinois Senate in 1886, serving until 1910. This house, second oldest in Orland Park, was built in 1881. Donated to the Orland Historical Society in 1987, it was placed on the National Register in 2005. Sponsored by the Orland Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society|
|Cook||Kennicott House||1455 Milwaukee Avenue, Glenview||42° 04.984||-087° 51.720||1978||The Grove Heritage Association and The Illinois State Historical Society||Kennicott House was built in 1865 by John A. Kennicott, a prominent Illinois physician, horticulturist, and educational and agricultural leader. Kennicott moved to the Grove from New Orleans with his family in 1863 shortly after the birth of his son, Robert, 1835. He devoted much of his time to the study and promotion of horticulture and agriculture, developing the Grove into the first major nursery in northern Illinois. Robert Kennicott developed an interest in nature at an early age, studying with his father. He helped found the Chicago Academy of Sciences, and his explorations of Alaska gave the United States its first scientific knowledge of that region and infuenced the decision for its purchase.|
|Cook||Origins of Calumet City and Abraham Lincoln Funeral Train||The marker is located in Calumet City, on the northwest corner of the intersection of State Street and State Line Avenue.||41° 37.303||-087° 31.505||3/1/2009||The Calumet City Historical Society, Calumet City, and the Illinois State Historical Society||Two blocks north of this corner the funeral train of Abraham Lincoln entered Illinois at approximately 10:15 a.m. on May 1, 1865, on the Michigan Central Railroad right-of-way. In the autumn of 1869, the founders of the state slaughter house walked east along the railroad tracks and they searched for a suitable site to establish their business. The property they chose was north of the tracks on the east side of the Illinois-Indiana border. The company shipped its first load of dressed, refrigerated beef out of Hammond in October. Within a few years, some of the land south of the tracks on the Illinois side, once owned by stephen a. Douglas, an attorney for the Michigan Central and a political colleague of Lincoln, became home to many employees of the packing plant. By 1891, the plant was known as G.H. Hammond and Company and employed approximately 1,000 men and women, many of whom lived in the neighborhoods on or just off State Street, including Freitag's Subdivision, which had been created in 1879 in the vicinity of Lincoln Avenue and State Street. Freitag's Subdivision and the residential neighborhoods on Douglas, Ingraham, Forsythe, and Plummer Avenues and the commercial establishments along State Street were incorporated as the village of West Hammond, Illinois, in 1893 and became know as Calumet City in 1924.|
|Cook||River Forest, Illinois Proud Heritage-Bright Future||Washington Square Park, outside the entrance of the tennis courts. The park is located at the corner of Forest Ave. and Washington Boulevard, River Forest IL||3/30/2013||Patrick Yerkes- Boy Scout Troop 65||The site of present-day River Forest was once home to prehistoric Native Americans, who constructed large effigy mounds throughout the region. Soon after the American Revolution Chippewa, Menominee, and Potawatomi Indians moved onto the landscape, but by 1835 most native tribes were gone, complying with terms of the 1833 treaty of Chicago. On the east bank of the Des Plaines River, a steam powered sawmill built in the 1830s provided lumber for an expanding population. Its future co-owner, Ashbelle Steele, was the first European settler in the county. Arriving in 1836. In 1859 he contracted for the landmark brick "Harlem School." The Pennsylvania Turnpike (now Lake Street) was laid out in 1842 and one of the first planked roads in America in 1880 prosperous settlers influenced by the temperance movement incorporated River Forest. The town installed electric street lights in 1890. In 1914 the River Forest Park District purchased Washington Square to prevent an ice manufacturer from coming into town. Likewise, the Forest Preserve District of Cook County purchased a portion of Thatcher Woods in 1917 to preserve an Oak Savanna. The town grew from 1,000 residents in 1894 to 8,829 by 1930. The River Forest Tennis Club (1905) with its showcase Frank Lloyd Wright Clubhouse, was home to the National Clay Courts Championship from 1935-1966. Trailside Museum, a converted victorian mansion built by Abraham L. Hoffman in 1874, is a local nature center. Sponsored by Patrick Yerkes-Troop 65- Eagle Scout project, Illinois State Historical Society December 2012|
|Cook||Stephen Arnold Douglas, 1813-1861||Douglas Tomb, Oakenwald, Chicago||1963||Stephen Arnold Douglas, one of the most distinguished statesman of his day, was a justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, member of the House of Representatives, and the United States Senate. Although a political rival of Lincoln, he supported the Union at the outbreak of the Civil War and contributed greatly to the solidarity of the North. This tomb stands on Oakenwald, Douglas' former estate.|
|Cook||The Milwaukee Road||Union Station||6/26/2014||The Milwaukee Road The Milwaukee Road (Chicago Milwaukee St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) was one the three Railroads that built Chicago's Union station. In 1956, the milwaukee road was the third largest railroad track mileage (15,846) and sixth largest in revenues ($254 million), and employed more than 27,400 people. Famous Milwaukee trains included the Olympian Hiawatha and Columbian (Chicago to Seattle), morning and afternoon Hiawatha (Chicago to Minneapolis), Midwest Hiawatha (Chicago to Omaha), Southwest Limited (Milwaukee/Chicago/Kansas City) and the Copper Country Limited (Chicago to northwest Wisconsin/Michigan). The design and features of The Hiawatha trains made Milwaukee Road one of the few railroads to make a profit on passenger service during the 1930s. These same trains moved thousands of troops during World War II in the 1940s. Autos, trucks, and airlines took away much of the passenger and freight service in the 1950s and 1960s, and by 1977 the railroad filed for bankruptcy. It was sold in 1985 to the Soo Line railroad and local lines to Metra. Metra's Milwaukee-north and Milwaukee-west commuter lines were once lines to the northwest and midwest. The Chicago Transit authority's Red line north of Wilson Avenue and Purple Line were also once a part of the Milwaukee road. Amtrak's Hiawatha service between Milwaukee and Chicago continues the Milwaukee Road's tradition of high speed train travel. This station is a reminder of this one great railroad's presence.|
|Cook||Washington Park Racetrack||Homewood, IL||10/1/2012||Village of Homewood Heritage Committee and the Illinois State Historical Society.||Opening on July 3, 1926, with the American Derby and a $100,000 purse, Washington Park Racetrack, built by Washington Park Corporation and Illinois Jockey Club, became a home for the nation's finest thoroughbreds. Colonel Matt Winn and the American Turf Association bought the track in 1929. Ben Lindheimer and Associates acquired the track in 1935. A record crowd of 57,036 turned out on Labor Day 1946 to see 'Armed' break the track record of a mile and a quarter. Racing here were prominent stables including Calumet and Dixiana with great horses Sun Beau, Whirlaway, Citation, and Round Table. Willie Shoemaker and Bill Hardtack battled for national jockey honors in the early 1950s. Nashua, jockeyed by Eddie Arcaro, beat Swaps, jockeyed by Willie Shoemaker, by 6 1/2 lengths in the "Greatest Match Race in American Thoroughbred History" on August 31, 1955. A.C. Nielsen estimated that the millions of viewers of this race made television-sporting history. Marje Lindheimer Everett rebuilt, enclosed the plant in glass in 1962, and introduced harness racing. Other owners included Gulf & Western industries. Lastly, Madison Square Garden Corporation introduced nationally recognized entertainers in a concert venue. Illinois' first Sunday pari-mutuel racing in 1976 and first winter thoroughbred racing in 1977 were granted to Washington Park. The racetrack's grandstand and clubhouse burned in a colossal fire on February 5, 1977, bringing an end to the track's rich history. Sponsored by the Village of Homewood Heritage Committee and the Illinois State Historical Society. October 2012.|
|Cook||West Side Grounds: Home Field of the Chicago National League Ball Club from 1893 to 1915||The marker is located in downtown Chicago at 912 South Wood Street which is one-third mile south of I-290 and one and a third mile west of I-90 – I-94. The marker is on the east side of Wood Street in front of the University of Illinois Hospital.||41° 52.196||-087° 40.288||9/1/2008||Sponsored by the Way Out In Left Field Society, the Illinois Medical District, the Illinois State Historical Society, and the University of Illinois at Chicago||First Game: May 14 1893 (Cincinnati 13, Chicago 12) Last Game: October 3, 1915 (Chicago 7, St. Louis 2) Seating Capacity: 16,000 Career Record at West Side Grounds: 1,018 Wins, 640 Losses World Series Championships: 1907, 1908 National League Championships: 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910 In 1891 the Chicago Ball Club purchased this site and built a ballpark for $30,000. Bordered by Polk, Lincoln (Walcott), Taylor, and Wood Street, the ballpark had a covered grandstand of steel and wood, open-air seating along both foul lines, and an upper deck with box seats. In 1906 the Chicago Cubs at West Side Grounds won a major league record 116 games and the ballpark hosted the first intra-city World Series game between the Chicago Cubs and the Chicago White Sox. In 1907 and 1908 the the Chicago Cubs became the first team to win consecutive World Series titles. The ballpark hosted its last World Series in 1910 between the Cubs and the Philadelphia Athletics. The Chicago Cubs moved to Weeghman Park (Wrigley Field) in 1916. West Side Grounds was sold in 1919 for $40,000 to the State of Illinois for a research and educational hospital from which grew the nation's largest medical district. The phrase "Way out in left field" originated at the West Side Grounds, due to the location of a psychiatric hospital behind the ballpark's left field fence, where players and fans could hear patients making odd and strange remarks during games. Sponsored by the Way Out In Left Field Society, the Illinois Medical District, the Illinois State Historical Society, and the University of Illinois at Chicago September 2008|
|Crawford||Auntie Gogin's Store||The marker is located in Palestine, at the intersection of Main Street (IL Route 33) and Grand Prairie Streets.||39° 00.104||-087° 36.765||1962||Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this block Mary Ann (Elwell) Gogin operated a general merchandise store in the late nineteenth century. One of the first women in Illinois to own and manage her own store, Mrs. Gogin was affectionately known as 'Auntie' to the residents of Palestine.|
|Crawford||Cullom Homestead||The marker is located in Palestine at 208 South Jackson Street.||39° 00.070||-087° 36.510||1963||Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||Here stood the home of Edward N. Cullom who with Joseph Kitchell platted the village of Palestine in 1818. They donated to the county land including the public square for the county seat. Early court sessions were held in the Cullom house.|
|Crawford||Du Bois Tavern||The marker is located in Palestine at 309 South Lincoln.||39° 00.012||-087° 36.698||1963||The Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||Here stood the Dubois Tavern. Jesse K. Dubois, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, was an official in the United States Land Office in Palestine from 1841-1842 and from 1849-1853 and later became Auditor of Public Accounts for Illinois. His son, Fred T. Dubois, became a Senator from Idaho.|
|Crawford||Fort Foot||The marker is located on the North side of IL Route 33, on the west edge of Palestine, adjacent to the Palestine, IL marker.||39° 00.453||-087° 37.437||1963||Citizen's of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||About 1813 the William Eaton family and other restless pioneers considered Fort LaMotte too crowded and therefore constructed a new stockade on a site several hundred yards north of here. A family trait of the Eatons, large feet, led to the name of Fort Foot.|
|Crawford||Fort La Motte||The marker is located on the southeast side of Palestine, on the southeast corner of Leaverton and LaMotte Streets, one block north of the cemetery.||38° 59.926||-087° 36.175||1962||Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||About 1812, the settlers in this area built Fort LaMotte for protection from hostile Indians. The pioneers farmed the adjoining land but stayed within easy reach of the protective walls. After the War of 1812 the Indian threat diminished and the inhabitants of the fort became the nucleus of Palestine.|
|Crawford||Governor Augustus C. French||The marker is located in Palestine at the intersection of South Pike and Grand Prairie Streets.||39° 00.121||-087° 36.858||1963||Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood the home of Augustus C. French (1808-1864) when he was elected the ninth Governor of Illinois. The early settlers in Illinois came mostly from southern states so that French, a native of New Hampshire, was the first 'Yankee' to be elected Governor.|
|Crawford||Houston-Dickson Store||The marker is located in Palestine, at the intersection of Grand Prairie and Lincoln Streets.||39° 00.117||-087° 36.682||1963||Citizens of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||Two early residents of Palestine, John Houston and Francis Dickson, purchased this lot as the site for a combination dwelling and store about 1818. By 1820 their stock of merchandise provided nearby settlers with goods which they previously had to bring from Indiana.|
|Crawford||Hutson Memorial||The marker is located 1.5 miles south of Hutsonville at the Hutsonville Historic Site on Rose Street.||39° 05.392||-087° 39.471||1951||The Illinois State Historical Society||Hutsonville was named after the Isaac Hutson family massacred by Indians in 1813 at a spot sixty-four rods due east of this marker. Hutson was killed later in a skirmish with the Indians near Fort Harrison, Indiana.|
|Crawford||Kitchell Grist Mill||The marker is located at south edge of Palestine on the west side of IL 33.||38° 59.877||-087° 36.626||1963||Citizen's of Palestine and The Illinois State Historical Society||In this area Joseph Kitchell, who settled here in 1817, erected a grist mill and distillery which eliminated the trip to Shakertown, Indiana where the farmers had previously taken their grain. Horses were used for power, grain was taken in pay, converted to whiskey and sold to settlers.|
|Crawford||Palestine, Illinois||The marker is located on the west edge of Palestine on IL 33, adjacent to the Fort Foot marker.||39° 00.453||-087° 37.437||4/16/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||This area reminded Frenchman John LaMotte of the land of milk and honey, Palestine. While a member of the LaSalle exploring party, he became separated from the group, traveled down the Wabash River, and first gazed upon the region in 1678. Other French settlers came during the 18th century. Then, by 1812, the westward moving Americans began constructing Fort LaMotte. As the palisade filled with settlers, those desiring more room moved a few miles to the northwest and established Fort Foot.
The settlers in Fort LaMotte were the core of the town of Palestine. Platted in 1818 by Joseph Kitchell and Edward Cullom, the settlement served until 1843 as the Crawford County seat. The growth of the town lagged until a United States Land Office, opened in 1821, gave new importance to the community. Then, people came to buy land, to attend court, for entertainment, and to have their grain milled. Others, like Abraham Lincoln in 1830, passed through the bustling town on their was to settle in Illinois.
The land office continued to give prominence to Palestine. Robert A. Kinzie came in 1831 to purchase 102 acres for $127.68, an area which became the nucleus of Chicago. Augustus C. French (1808-1864) served as a Receiver in the Land Office from 1839 to 1843. A native of New Hampshire, he was the first 'Yankee' to be elected Governor of Illinois. Chosen in 1846, French was forced to stand for re-election under the new constitution of 1848 and won.
|Crawford||United States Land Office||The marker is located in Palestine at the intersection of Main and Market Streets.||39° 00.160||-087° 36.766||11/12/1950||The Illinois State Historical Society||A United States Land Office was located at this site in 1820 and operated until 1855. Settlers from as far as Chicago came here to file on homesteads. Young Abraham Lincoln passing through Palestine in 1830 with his family in emigrant wagons noticed a crowd before this land office.|
|DeKalb||Barbed Wire Manufacturing 1837-1938||The marker is located in DeKalb, in front of the Glidden Home at 931 West Lincoln Highway (IL Route 38).||41° 55.873||-088° 46.235||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||This house, built in 1861, was the home of Joseph Glidden, who in 1873 invented barbed wire fencing. With Phineas W. Vaughn he perfected a machine to manufacture it. DeKalb became the manufacturing center for barbed wire, significant in the development of the west.|
|DeKalb||DeKalb County Farm Bureau||1350 West Prairie Drive, Sycamore, IL||41° 96730||-088° 70439||9/1/2014||DeKalb County Farm Bureau Foundation DeKalb Area Agricultural Heritage Association Illinois State Historical Society||DeKalb County Farm Bureau In 1912, an enterprising and forward-thinking group of farmers, businessmen, and bankers joined together to form the DeKalb County Soil Improvement Association. This grassroots coalition became the DeKalb County Farm Bureau, the first Farm Bureau in Illinois and among the oldest in the United States. Originally dedicated to improving crop production this farmer-led organization has evolved, finding solutions to challenges posed by America's evolving agriculture needs and offering a wide variety of assistance to farmers, rural families and their communities.|
|DeKalb||First DeKalb Brand Corn Breeding Plot||DeKalb, Illinois||0/0/0000||Dekalb Area Agricultural Heritage Association, Inc.||First Dekalb Brand Corn Breeding Plot On this farm two entrepreneurs began a small experiment in 1925, the results of which have helped transform agriculture and the economics of Illinois, this nation and the world. Driven by the desire to improve farmers' productivity, Charlie Gunn (corn breeder) and Tom Roberts (manager) of the Dekalb County Agricultural Association began a hybrid corn-breeding program here on the then J.J. Kingsley farm. Their interest in pursuing the novel idea of boosting corn yields through the science of hybridization was solidified during an earlier visit to Dekalb by U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace. Because the science was little known and commercially unproven, Roberts and Gunn kept the breeding plot secret even from their board of directors until 1928. In 1933, a comparison trial of Gunn's first corn hybrid against an open-pollinated varied he had developed earlier showed an impressive 35 percent yield boost. In 1938 Gunn introduced an outstanding hybrid that extended the corn belt northward 200 miles. Roberts applied his business acumen, developing innovative ways to finance, produce, distribute, and market hybrid seed corn. Farmer dealers were signed up, sales grew, and by 1949, 18 seed conditioning plants had been built in the U.S. and Canada to meet growing demand. It's hard to overstate the importance of hybrid corn. Indeed, in 1992 time magazine named hybrid corn as|
|DeKalb||Lincoln Highway Seedling Mile||The marker is located on the south side of the parking lot of Kishwaukee College, five miles west of DeKalb, and just west of Malta, on the north side of IL Route 38 (East Lincoln Highway).||41° 56.139||-088° 52.814||11/12/1995||Alpha Rho Eta Chapter of Phi Theta Kappa International Honor Society, Kishwaukee College, The Illinois State Historical Society||The Lincoln Highway was the first transcontinental, hard surface roadway in the United States. The Highway traversed 3,384 miles and twelve states - beginning in New York City and ending in San Francisco. Planned in 1913 by the Lincoln Highway Asssociation, this roadway predated the Federal Highway System and later came under the jurisdiction of the State Highway Commissions along the route. The project was completed fourteen months after it began. The project began with a series of four 'seedling miles'--the first of which passed this site. Here, a one-mile section ten feet wide was paved with concrete in October 1914. The Malta 'seedling mile,' a former dirt and gravel road, became one of the first experiments in the use of concrete for the development of a better road surface. Due to the experimental nature of concrete and subsequent resistance of public highway officials at that time, completion of the Highway resulted from private enterprise and strong, local sponsorship for which the DeKalb County sponsors provided the model. The durability of this new building material was proven by the fact that the original surface was still in use some twenty years after the road way was first opened.|
|DeKalb||Shabbona||The marker is on the southeast corner of the intersection of Route 30 and County Road 420E (Indian Road), just east of the town of Shabonna.||41° 46.067||-088° 51.729||1986||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In the early 1800's Shabbona was a principal chief of the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Chippewa group of tribes which banded together to form 'The Three Fires.' Shabbona camped briefly in a large grove one-half mile south of here. He fought with the British in the War of 1812 and later helped the settlers of northern Illinois by warning of Indian uprisings during the Winnebago outbreak. In the Black Hawk War, Shabbona alerted pioneers to impending Indian raids and offered to lead an attack against the Sauk and Fox Tribes.|
|DeKalb||William George Eckhardt (Site of Eckhardt's Home and Seed House)||0/0/0000||Sponsored by the DeKalb Area Agricultural Heritage Association (www.DAAHA.org) and the Illinois State Historical Society.||William George Eckhardt (Site of Eckhardt's Home and Seed House) In the early 20th century William George Eckhardt (1879-1959) was a pioneer in DeKalb County's leading role in agricultural innovation. Eckhardt, an agronomy professor at the University of Illinois, was an expert in the blossoming field of soil science. On June 1, 1912, the DeKalb County Soil Improvement Association-predecessor to the DeKalb Agricultural Association (DAA)-hired Eckhardt as a soil scientist to "establish permanent and profitable agricultural practices." Eckhardt's charge was to "improve farming practices within the County|
|DuPage||Army Trail Road||The marker is located in Alddison on the grounds of the Village Hall at 1 Friendship Plaza near the intersection of Army Trail Road and West Lake Road. (missing)||41° 55.935||-087° 59.420||5/27/1974||The DuPAge Chapter, Daughters of the American Colonists and The Illinois State Historical Society||This road followed an Indian trail that began in Chicago and went through DuPage, Kane, DeKalb, Boone, and Winnebago Counties to a Winnebago village at Beloit, Wisconsin. In August, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, United States Army reinforcements from the eastern department followed the trail. Their General, Winfield Scott, left Chicago ahead of the troops and took a different route to the war area.Delayed by cholera, his men did not reach the front until after the Black Hawk's defeat. The tracks left by heavy army wagons formed a road for early settlers.|
|DuPage||Fort Payne||The marker is located in Naperville on US 34, on the North Central College Campus near Merner Fieldhouse.||41° 46.245||-088° 08.714||1964||The DuPage County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Near this site in 1832, a 100-foot square stockade enclosed by wooden pickets, with two blockhouses on diagonal corners, was built. Here Captain Morgan L. Payne and his company of forty-five men protected the settlers from roaming Sauk Indians during the Black Hawk War.|
|DuPage||Stacy's Tavern||The marker is located in Glen Ellyn in Stacy’s Park at the intersection of North Main Street and Geneva Road.||41° 53.385||-088° 03.913||1967||The DuPage Chapter, Daughters of the American Colonists and The Illinois State Historical Society||Moses Stacy, soldier in the War of 1812, arrived here in 1835. This inn, built in 1846 and his second home, was a half way stop for between Chicago and the Fox River Valley and a probable stage stop for Rockford - Galena coaches. For many years the village was called 'Stacy's Corners.'|
|Edgar||Paris, Illinois||The marker is located near the north edge of Paris about 100 yards west of Il. Rt. 1 in extreme edge of Kiwanis Park||39° 38.265||-087° 41.628||6/24/1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Paris lies in the heart of a rich farming area. Most of the land embraced in Edgar County, including Paris, remained Kickapoo hunting grounds until 1819, but the eastern quarter of the county was part of a tract ceded by the Indians in 1819 and offered for sale at Vincennes as early as 1816. Edgar County was established in 1823, and Paris was laid out on twenty-six acres donated by Samuel Vance in April of that year. The Edgar County Courthouse is located at the center of this parcel of land.
Alone or with others, Vance laid out the earliest roads from Paris in 1823-24. The first road, later known as the lower Terre Haute Road, is still being traveled today. A second road ran to Darwin, in Clark County. The fourth road, to the Vermilion salines near Danville, formed part of the Vincennes Trace and is now a section of Illinois Route 1 to Chicago.
At 130 South Central Avenue in Paris is the former home of Milton K. Alexander, Brigadier General in the Illinois Mounted Volunteers during the Black Hawk War of 1832. The house was built in 1826 and enlarged in 1840. Alexander was acquainted with Abraham, who as a lawyer frequently came to Paris when Edgar County was in the Eighth Judicial Circuit. Lincoln spoke in Paris in August 6, 1856, on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate, John C. Fremont.
Lincoln spoke in Paris again on September 7, 1858, in his unsuccessful campaign against Stephen A. Douglas for United States Senate. A large proportion of the early settlers in Paris were from the South, and during the Civil War, there were many southern sympathizers called Copperheads. Some of these people were defeated in a minor clash with Union troops in February 1864.
|Edgar||Pontiac Peace Treaty||The marker is located in northern Edgar County in a pull out area on the west side of IL Rt. 1 about 2.4 miles north of Chrisman.||39° 50.460||-087° 39.881||1989||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||A few miles west of here on July 18, 1765, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, and George Croghan, British representative, met in a formal peace council which ended the most threatening Indian uprising against the British in North America. Following the French and Indian War (1754-1763), many Indian tribes showed dissatisfaction with British rule. Indian leaders believed the land belonged to the Indians and that the French and British occupied it only by their consent, but the British had no intention of accepting Indian tribes as independent national units possessing sovereignty. This disagreement and others concerning liquor, ammunition, and other gifts led to open hostilities.
On May 3, 1763, Pontiac led the Ottawa and other tribes in an attack on Fort Detroit. Additional tribes attacked other forts. Soon the frontier was the scene of an extensive Indian uprising. By August, only Detroit, Fort Pitt and Fort Niagara remained in British hands. Pontiac held his followers to a six months' siege of Detroit which was remarkable as warriors preferred active combat. Contemporary estimates of the number killed or captured by the Indians ran as high as 2,000 but the actual figure was closer to 600.
The siege failed and Pontiac traveled west to seek French aid. When this was refused, Pontiac agreed to meet the English representative George Croghan. Following this meeting, Pontiac accompanied Croghan to Detroit where they arrived on August 17, 1765, to finalize the treaty with appropriate ceremonies. Pontiac was assassinated in Cahokia, Illinois, April, 1769 by a Peoria Indian.
|Edgar||Pontiac's Conspiracy||The Marker is located 4.7 miles north of US Rt. 36 on the southeast corner of the intersection of Il. RT. 49 (200E) and Palmero Road (2675N). It is on the Douglas County – Edgar County Line||39° 51.688||-087° 56.243||3/1/1936||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Following the French and Indian War (1754-1763), France ceded all claims to their North American Territory, called New France, to England in the Treaty of Paris (February, 1763). English troops quickly occupied many former French forts and conditions began to change for the Indians. The English were interested in settling, not trading. A popular Ottawa Indian Chief, Pontiac, was able to unite many of the Northwest Territory Indian tribes in an uprising that came to be known as Pontiac's conspiracy. From early 1763 into 1765, the Indians attacked forts and outlying settlements throughout the Great Lakes area. Only Fort Pitt and Fort Detroit remained in English control. After an unusual but unsuccessful 6 month seige of Fort Detroit, many Indians became discouraged and returned home to prepare for the coming winter. Pontiac then tried unsuccessfully to obtain aid from Commandant Neyon de Villiers at Fort de Chartes. According to local tradition, Pontiac then reluctantly met with George Croghan, Sir William Johnson's representative, at the site of Palermo, three miles east of here in July, 1765 to make preliminary arrangments for peace. Following the meeting at Palermo, the two men traveled to Fort Quiatenon (LaFayette, Indiana) and on to Fort Detroit to smoke a peace pipe and sign a treaty ending the uprising.|
|Edgar||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located in a pull out area on the north side of US 36 just west of the Indiana state line and 6.7 miles east of Chrisman.||39° 47.785||-087° 33.103||1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Old Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Two extensive livestock farms were located in Edgar County. At their height around 1875, each farm consisted of several thousand acres on which up to 1,000 Shorthorn cattle were fattened yearly for market until they weighed up to 3,000 pounds apiece . These farms were representative of a phenomena extending across Illinois in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. The 'Cattle Kings in the Prairies' were men who early recognized the value of this land, purchased thousands of acres, and used it to fatten livestock for Midwestern and Eastern markets. Agricultural changes eventually caused them to de-emphasize livestock feeding and to rent the land to grain farming tenants. However, the cattle kings retained ownership and remained wealthy, powerful and influential. Some were active in state and national politics. Their descendants still own some of the tracts.|
|Edgar||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located at Chrisman on the north side of US 36, just west of Indiana State line.||39° 47.764||-087° 33.106||6/25/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.
US 36 touches six counties which were part of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. From 1839 to 1860 Abraham Lincoln followed the court as it moved from county seat to county seat within the circuit. Thus, he came to such cities as Paris, Sullivan, Monticello, Decatur, and Springfield for the bi-annual terms.
West of Decatur this highway passes near the Lincoln Trail Homestead State Park on the banks of the Sangamon River. This was the site of the first Lincoln home in Illinois when the family came from Indiana in 1830. The following spring Thomas Lincoln moved to Coles County and Abraham moved on to New Salem, 20 miles northwest of Springfield. US 36 passes through Springfield where Lincoln's home and tomb are state memorials. Springfield is also the site of the Old State Capitol where Lincoln delivered his famous 'House Divided' speech.In 1834, Joseph Smith, prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), together with about 200 LDS volunteers form Kirtland, Ohio, marched to assist threatened church members in Jackson County, Missouri. Called "Zion's Camp," this armed group crossed the Wabash River into Edgar County on May 24, encamped near the river, and, after observing the Sabbath, passed through Paris on May 26, causing uneasiness among local residents who misunderstood their purpose. The
|Edgar||Zion's Camp March Through Edgar County||The marker is located in Paris on the southwest corner of the Edgar County Courthouse lawn.||39° 36.688||-087° 41.767||10/14/2000||The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1834, Joseph Smith, prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), together with about 200 LDS volunteers form Kirtland, Ohio, marched to assist threatened church members in Jackson County, Missouri. Called "Zion's Camp," this armed group crossed the Wabash River into Edgar County on May 24, encamped near the river, and, after observing the Sabbath, passed through Paris on May 26, causing uneasiness among local residents who misunderstood their purpose. The trek of "Zion's Camp" provided Brigham Young and other LDS leaders with a model for organizing their later exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Utah in 1846.|
|Edwards||Abraham Lincoln||The marker is located on the west edge of Albion on the south side of IL Route 15. It is on the grounds of Albion Community School, facing north, and the marker is mounted vertically on a brick pillar||38° 22.608||-088° 04.087||1956||The Illinois State Historical Society||Spoke in the oak grove of General William Pickering north of here in the presidential campaign of 1840. He was stumping southern Illinois as a Whig elector for General William Henry Harrison in the Tippecanoe and Tyler Too campaign. In 1861 Lincoln appointed Pickering Governor of Washington Territory.|
|Edwards||Wanborough||The marker is located 1.5 miles west of Albion and 0.25 miles below IL 15 on the north side of the Old Fairfield Road (County Road 850 North)in the Wanborough Cemetery.||38° 22.469||-088° 05.418||9/1/2007||The Illinois Foundation for Frontier Studies and the Illinois State Historical Society||The former village of Wanborough, Illinois, was established in August 1818, by English settler an entrepreneur Morris Birkbeck. A center of commerce for his fellow countrymen emigrating to the English Settlement in Edwards County, Wanborough once included two taverns, a grist mill, two stores, a pottery, a blacksmith, and one of the State's first breweries. The town, however, lasted for only a short time and was all but abandoned by 1840. Competition from the nearby town of Albion and Birkbeck's accidental drowning in 1825, contributed to the community's demise. This cemetery is all that is left of the village.|
|Effingham||Illinois Central Railroad, The||The marker is located in Mason, on the Northeast edge of town, on IL 37.||2/1/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||On September 27, 1856, near this site, workmen drove the spike which completed the 705 miles of the Illinois Central Railroad's charter lines and the first federal land grant railroad in the United States. In 1850 Congress had granted the alternate sections of public land within six miles on either side of the railroad between specific sites to the State of Illinois. The following year the state issued a charter to the Illinois Central which outlined the route from the southern end of the Illinois and Michigan Canal (LaSalle) to Cairo with branches to Chicago and, through Galena, to the banks of the Mississippi River. As construction advanced the Illinois Central received about 2,595,000 acres. The Illinois Central developed the surrounding territory to assure an increased business. They conducted an intensive publicity campaign by sending pamphlets and agents to the eastern states, Canada, England, Germany, Norway and Sweden to encourage immigration to Illinois. The company sold its fertile prairie land on liberal credit terms and settlers moved to the previously undeveloped region along the Centralia Chicago branch. In later years, the Illinois Central encouraged the development of a variety of crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, cotton, fruits, vegetables and soybeans; the improvement of livestock; the use of farm machinery; and the development of industry and coal mining. For sixteen years the Illinois Central was exclusively an Illinois railroad; then it began to expand into other states.|
|Fayette||Blackwell's White House||The marker is located in Vandalia at the intersection if US 40 and US 51 (3rd Street and Gallatin Street.||1954||The Illinois State Historical Society||Colonel Robert Blackwell's new two-story frame store and boardinghouse opened on this site in time for the convening of the Ninth General Assembly on December 1, 1834. He advertised board and lodging for 'thirty or forty.'|
|Fayette||Charters' Hotel||The marker is located in Vandalia at the northeast corner of 4th Street and Gallatin Street.||1954||The Illinois State Historical Society||John Charters operated a large tavern on this site from the late 1820's to November 1835. Under the name, 'Sign of the Green Tree,' it was operated by Thomas Redmond until 1838.|
|Fayette||Cumberland Road||The marker is located in Vandalia on the corner of Fourth and Gallatin Streets.||Vandalia was the western terminus of the Cumberland or National Road which extended eighty feet wide for 591 miles from Cumberland, Maryland through Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. Illinois construction by the Federal Government began in 1811 and ceased in 1838, the approximate cost being seven million dollars.|
|Fayette||First State Capitol, 1820-1823||The marker is located in Vandalia at the corner of Fifth and Johnson Streets.||The first capitol building owned by the State was erected on this site. It was a thirty by forty feet two-story frame structure. The Second and Third Illinois General Assemblies met here, the House on the first floor and the Senate on the second. This building was destroyed by fire on December 9, 1823.|
|Fayette||Flack's Hotel||The marker is located in Vandalia, at the intersection of Fourth and Gallatin Streets.||1954||In 1836 Colonel Abner Flack took over the large three-story frame building which stood here, and operated it under the name Vandalia Inn. In 1853-1854 it was the headquarters for Chief Engineer Charles F. Jones, in charge of construction of the Illinois Central Railroad.|
|Fayette||Historic Vandalia||The marker is located at the Vandalia Statehouse State Memorial.||Vandalia was the second capitol of Illinois, 1820-1839. Here met the General Assembly, the Supreme Court, and the Federal Courts. Abraham Lincoln served in the House of Representatives 1834-1839, and Stephen A. Douglas 1836-1837.|
|Fayette||House of Divine Worship, Erected in 1823||The marker is located in Vandalia at the corner of 3rd Street and Main Street.||The Illinois General Assembly donated five lots in Vandalia to promote the construction of a church for the use of all denominations. The forty-five by sixty feet one-story frame structure erected in the summer of 1823 was used primarily by the Presbyterians and Methodists and also for public meetings and as a schoolhouse.|
|Fayette||National Road in Illinois, The||The marker is located east of Vandalia in a turnout on the north side US 40, east of Kaskakia River.||4/1/1968||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The National Road was the result of the project of Albert Gallatin to unite the East and West. His plan to allocate money from public land sales for this purpose was incorporated into the Ohio Enabling Act in 1802. The original road, as proposed in 1805 and authorized by Thomas Jefferson in 1806, was to extend from the Potomac to the Ohio. Construction began in 1811 and by 1818 the road was completed to Wheeling, Virginia. Two years later Congress agreed to extend the road and allocated funds for a survey through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. The route from the Indiana line to Vandalia, approximately 89 miles long was surveyed in 1827. In 1830 Congress appropriated $40,000 for opening and grading the Illinois section. Additional money was granted each year thereafter, but was limited to clearing, grading, and bridging. Construction problems and corrupt practices resulted in the project's being placed under the Army Corps of Engineers in 1834. The road was opened to Vandalia in 1839; however, the Illinois section remained an unfinished surface with only 31 miless of grading and masonry completed. The road had been surveyed to Jefferson City, Missouri but in 1840 Congress terminated construction at Vandalia. On May 9, 1856, Congress transferred the 'Rights and Priveleges' connected with the road in Illinois to the state. It became a part of the 'National Old Trails Road' in the early twentieth century and was, until recently, a part of US 40.|
|Fayette||Old State Cemetery||The marker is located in Vandalia on Edwards Street near Third Street.||The Illinois General Assembly authorized Governor Edward Coles in 1823 to convey to Vandalia one and one-half acres for a state buriel ground. Here were buried four members of the legislature and several state officials who died while in office. The monument erected by the state is in adjoining South Hill Cemetery.|
|Fayette||Public Printer||The marker is located in Vandalia on Gallatin Street near 4th Street.||This is the site of a two-story frame building occupied by Robert Blackwell, state printer 1818-1832, and publisher of the laws of the United States. In 1823 he became publisher of the Illinois Intelligencer newspaper. The first periodical in Illinois, the Illinois Monthly Magazine, was printed here in 1826. Colonel Blackwell (1792-1866) was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives 1832-1836 and Senate 1838-1840.|
|Fayette||Robert K. McLaughlin Home||The marker is located in Vandalia on Main Street near 3rd Street.||On this site lived Robert K. McLaughlin, State Treasurer 1820-1823, State Senator 1828-1832, 1836-1837, and Register of the United States Land Office 1837-1845. Here the Governors of Illinois resided when the legislature was in session. The McLaughlin home was the social center during the time the capital was in Vandalia.|
|Fayette||Second State Bank, 1836-1865||`The marker is located in Vandalia on Gallatin Street near Third Street.||The Second State Bank in Vandalia was chartered in 1835. In 1836 an imposing two-story brick building with stone front and a porch with massive pillars was erected. It burned on March 4, 1865.|
|Fayette||Second State Capitol||The marker is located in Vandalia on Fourth Street near Gallatin Street.||The second state capitol owned by the State was a two-story brick building erected here in 1824, using the walls of the first State Bank which burned January 28, 1823. Abraham Lincoln was a member of the House in the 1834-1835 and 1835-1836 sessions . Vandalia paid one-fifth of the total cost of $15,000. Torn down in 1836, the salvage was used in the third capitol building.|
|Fayette||Site of Ebenezer Capps Store||The marker is located in Vandalia on the northeast corner of Fourth Street and Main Street.||1954||During the years when Vandalia was the State Capitol (1820-1839), here stood the Ebenezer Capps Store, the largest wholesale and retail establishment in southern Illinois.|
|Fayette||Site of Ernst Hotel||The marker is located in Vandlia at Third Street and Main Street.||1954||Here stood a two-story log building erected in 1819 for Ferdinand Ernst who brought the German colony to Vandalia. Named Union Hall, it was operated as a hotel. After Ernst's death in 1823 it was managed by E.M. Townsend, and from April 1825 by Frederick Hollman.|
|Fayette||Third State Capitol, Erected in 1836||The marker is located in Vandalia at the Vandalia State House Memorial.||10/1/1954||The third capitol building owned by the State was restored as a memorial in 1933. It was the capitol from December 3, 1836 to July 4, 1839. Abraham Lincoln was a member of the House during the three sessions of the legislature held in this building, and was the leader in the removal of the capital to Springfield. Stephen A. Douglas was a member of the 1836-1837 session. The Fayette County Courthouse occupied this building 1839-1933.|
|Fayette||Vandalia Inn||The marker is located in Vandalia at Third Street and Gallatin Street.||1954||The 'very large tavern House, called the Vandalia Inn' opened here on November 15, 1834 with thirteen lodging rooms and a large dining room. Some years later it was known as Matthew Thompson's Tavern and was a depot for the Overland Stage. It was destroyed by fire in June 1853.|
|Fayette||Vandalia, Illinois||The marker is located in Vandalia at the Visitors' Center on US 51.||1974||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||For twenty years this city on the west bank of the Kaskaskia River was the capital of Illinois. In 1819, a year after Illinois gained statehood, the General Assembly voted to move state offices to Vandalia from Kaskaskia. The Second General Assembly convened at Vandalia, December 4, 1820, in the first state-owned capitol. A second statehouse was used from 1824 to 1836. A third, built by Vandalia citizens in 1836 in an attempt to retain the seat of government at Vandalia, is still standing. Ownership of the building was accepted by the state in February, 1837, only a few weeks before the assembly voted to relocate in Springfield, nearer the center of the state. Officers of the first six administrtions served in Vandalia. Here in 1836 Abraham Lincoln was admitted to the bar of Illinois. Here also he began his political career in 1834 as a member of the General Assembly. Other prominent Illinoisans at Vandalia included legislators Stephen A. Douglas and James Shields, and James Hall, State Treasurer, 1827-1831, and editor of Illinois Monthly Magazine, the first literary magazine in the state. The Illinois artist James W. Berry made his home here. Vandalia was the terminus of the National Road, which began in Cumberland, Maryland. Authorized during Thomas Jefferson's administration, the National Road was the first highway built with Federal funds. Vandalia is today the principal city and county seat of Fayette County. The restored third capitol is owned and maintained by the State of Illinois.|
|Ford||Ottawa Travel Road - Ten Mile Grove, The||The marker is located along Il Rt. 9 about 2.5 miles west of Paxton and 2.2 miles west of Interstate 57.||40° 27.289||-088° 08.867||0/0/1988||Ford County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Ottawa Travel Road begins in Danville. Of prehistoric origin, it was used until the early 1850's. It wandered northwest following higher ground, fording streams and detouring around seasonal obstructions. Here at Ten Mile Grove it divided, one fork going west to Saybrook the other to Ottawa. In 1848 William (Gunsmith Bill) Trickel opened a general store and blacksmith shop which also served the area as a post office from 1848 to 1857. The Grove was so named because of the distance from the nearest camping place on the Ottawa Travel Road to the southeast.|
|Franklin||Home of John A. and Mary Logan, 1856-1861||The marker is located in Benton at 204 South Main Street, just south of the turn-around square.||37° 59.721||-088° 55.226||1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||John A. Logan 1826-1886, U.S. Representative 1859-1862, 1867-1871; Civil War General, 1861-1865; U.S. Senator, 1871-1877, 1879-1886; Vice presidential Candidate with James Blaine 1884. He established Memorial Day as a National holiday on 1868. John A. Logan and Mary Cunningham were married in Shawneetown on November 27, 1855, and then moved to Benton where John practiced law. They lived in a small frame house on this site. Mary moved to Carbondale in 1861 where she remained during the Civil War.|
|Franklin||The First Beatle In America George Harrison||Capitol City Park, Benton, Illinois||9/21/2013||The Franklin County Historic Preservation Society, The Illinois State Historical Society, and Beatles Fans Everywhere||In the late summer of 1963, four musicians from Liverpool, England - John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr - collectively known as the Beatles, were poised to conquer pop culture and music history. With three hit singles in England, the Band anticipated their first number one record in America by taking separate holidays. Lennon to Paris, McCartney and Starr to Greece, and Harrison to America. Traveling with his older brother, Peter, Harrison came to Southern Illinois to visit their sister, Louise Harrison Caldwell, for a fortnight in the small mining town of Benton, Illinois. While in "Egypt" Harrison stayed in his sister's home at 113 McCann Street. Jammed with several local musicians, performed at a VFW Hall in Eldorado with the Four Vests, bought a guitar in Mt. Vernon, sang "Happy Birthday" at a Bocce Ball Club in Benton. and went camping in the Garden of the Gods and other sites in the Shawnee National Forest. Many of the Beatles' first recordings were played over the radio station WRFX-AM in West Frandfort and Harrison was interviewed by a local teenager, Marcia Schafer the first interview by a Beatle in America. Harrison returned to England and came back to America with Beatles the following February after "I Want To Hold Your Hand" rose to number one on the U.S. charts. Harrison went on to write such classic songs as "Taxman", "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", and "Something." the second most recorded song in the Beatles catalog. He died in 2001.|
|Fulton||Lewistown Trail||The marker is located in Lewiston on the west side of Routes 100 and 97 (Main Street) on the Courthouse Plaza.||40° 23.807||-090° 09.317||1975||Fulton County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Lewistown Trail, from Springfield to Galena via Lewistown, was one of the main routes to the Galena Lead Mines from 1827 to 1837. The Trail crossed the Illinois River at Havana, where Ossian M. Ross, the founder of Lewistown, operated a ferry. He was one of three men who surveyed and marked out the Trail. The Springfield-Lewistown section was made a post road in 1834. At that time Abraham Lincoln was postmaster at New Salem, one of the towns on the road.|
|Gallatin||Boone's Mill||The marker is just west of the Town Hall in downtown New Haven, northeast side of Vine Street.||37° 54.395||-088° 07.461||1971||Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Jonathon Boone, an older brother of the famous Pathfinder Daniel Boone, built a mill on this site about 1800. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1730 and died here about 1808. His son Joseph continued to operate the mill. In 1813 Joseph was named to mark out a road from Burnt Prairie to Shawneetown by way of his mill. On August 24, 1814, he purchsed the millsite from the Federal Land Office at Shawneetown. The mill was used as a landmark by the State Legislature in describing the boundary line seperating White from Gallatin County. Joseph sold the land in 1818. He died in Mississippi in 1827.|
|Gallatin||General Michael K. Lawler||The marker is located on the southeast corner of the Shawneetown (New Shawneetown) Mall, between West Lincoln Boulevard and East Lincoln Boulevard, facing Route 13.||37° 42.808||-088° 11.245||1970||Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Born in Ireland in 1814, Michael K. Lawler came here to Gallatin County in 1819. After serving as a captain in the Mexican War, he lived on his farm near here until the outbreak of the Civil War. In May 1861 he recruited the 18th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, of which he became a Colonel. Lawler was wounded during the siege of Fort Donelson. In November 1862 he was commissioned Brigadier General, and he fought gallantly in the Campaign of Vicksburg in 1863. He became a Major General in 1865, returning home the next year. He died in 1882.|
|Gallatin||James Harrison Wilson||The marker is located on the southwest corner of the Shawneetown (New Shawneetown) Mall, which is between West Lincoln Boulevard and East Lincoln Boulevard, facing south toward Route 13.||37° 42.814||-088° 11.259||1973||Gallatin County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||James H. Wilson, American Army Officer, Engineer, and Author, was born in 1837 on his family's farm about a mile south of here. He attended Shawneetown schools, McKendree College, and the United States Military Academy. In the spring of 1864, during the Civil War, he commanded Sheridan's Third Cavalry Division. In the spring of 1865, as Brevet Major General, Chief of the Cavalry, Military Division of Mississippi, Wilson led a month-long mounted campaign through Alabama, capping his exploits by surmounting the fortifications at Selma. Detachments under his command captured Jefferson Davis. Wilson also served in the Spanish-American War and the Boxer Rebellion. He died in 1925.|
|Gallatin||Marshall House||The marker is located in the southeast section of Old Shawneetown. It is in front of the Marshall House on Main Street with the levee on one side and the approach to the Ohio River Bridge on the other side.||37° 41.646||-088° 08.192||1976||Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the original site of the home of John Marshall, one of the founders and president of the Bank of Illinois, the first bank chartered by the Illinois Legislature. The charter was issued in 1816. The bank opened at Shawneetown in 1817, suspended operations in the mid-1820's and reopened from 1834 to 1842. Marshall was active in business and politics. In 1818 he was elected a legislature from Gallatin County to the first Illinois General Assembly. He died in 1858.|
|Gallatin||Old Salt Works||The marker is located one mile west of Equality on the south side of Route 142.||37° 44.604||-088° 21.344||1935||State of Illinois||One mile south was located one of the oldest salt works west of the Alleghenies. Here Indians and French made salt, while at a later day Americans established a commercial salt industry which finally attained a production of 500 bushels a day.|
|Gallatin||Rawlings Hotel||The marker is located on the east side of Main Street in Old Shawneetown, just north and across the street from the large Greek Revival Shawneetown Bank.||37° 41.809||-088° 08.053||1969||Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||One of Shawneetown's earliest brick buildings, Rawlings' Hotel, stood on this lot. It was built in 1821-1822 for Moses Rawlings', who owned it until 1841. On May 7, 1825, it was the site of a reception held for the Marquies de Lafayette during his visit to America, 1824-1825. Accompanied by Illinois' Governor Edward Coles and other dignitaries, Lafayette walked between two long lines of people from the river's edge to the hotel. The building was one of eleven destroyed by fire, June 23, 1904.|
|Gallatin||Shawneetown, Illinois (missing)||The marker was located in a pull-out area on the north side of Route 13, about 2 miles west of Ohio River. It is currently missing.||37° 42.526||-088° 10.154||7/28/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Ancient mounds rise above the low ground of Gallatin County in several places to testify to a prehistoric life here. The northern section of Shawneetown rests on ancient buriel mounds. For a short time in the mid-eighteenth century the Shawnee Indians had a village here. The first settler arrived about 1800 and others soon followed. The federal Government laid out Shawneetown in 1810, before the surrounding area was surveyed. The town grew as the trading post and the shipping point for salt from the United States Salines near Equality and as a majot point of entry for emigrants from the east. In 1814 the United States Land Office for South-eastern Illinois opened at Shawneetown. Two state memorials - in Shawneetown - the first bank in the territory (1816) and the imposing state bank building (1839), mark the community's early prominence as the financial center of Illinois. According to legend several Chicagoans applied for a loan in 1830 to improve their village but were turned away because Chicago was too far from Shawneetown to ever amount to anything. The Ohio River which contributed to the early importance of the town was always a threat to its existence. In 1937 the angry yellow waters rushed over the levees and rose in the town until they lapped the second floor of the State Bank building. It was then that most of the residents moved northwest to the hills and rebuilt Shawneetown, although some still clung to the original site.|
|Gallatin||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker was located on the north side of IL 13, about 2 miles west of the Ohio River bridge. It is currently missing.||3/11/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of Father Jacques Marquette and French trader Louis Jolliet as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia; Illinois then became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became, in turn, a part of the Northwest, Indiana, and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Many of the early settlers came from Kentucky, Tennessee, and the southeastern coastal states to live in the southern quarter of Illinois. Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River was the territorial capital as well as the first state capital. As the better land in Southern Illinois became scarce, the line of settlement advanced northward. Vandalia became the second in 1820. This highway passes through an area rich in the early history of Illinois. It crosses the Ohio River where the ferry service began about 1802, skirts old Shawneetown which was a major gateway for immigrants to Illinois and passes near Equality where the United States Salines produced salt for the Midwest in the nineteenth century. In 1937 a devastating flood covered most of Gallatin County and Highway 13 was under about ten feet of water.|
|Gallatin||United States Salines The (Equality) (missing)||The marker was located on the east side of Route 1, immediately south of the Saline River Bridge. It is currently missing.||37° 42.090||-088° 17.154||6/1/1965||The Illinois State Historical Society||Two salt springs in Gallatin County produced brine for one of the earliest salt works west of the Alleghenies. One spring is just southwest of Equality and the other is a short distance west of this site. The Indians made salt here long before the first settlers appeared. In 1803 the Indians ceded their 'great salt spring' to the United States by treaty. Congress refused to sell the salt lands in the public domain but it did authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to lease the lands to individuals at a royalty. The leases required the holder to produce a certain quantity of salt each year or pay a penalty. Although the Northwest Ordinance prohibited slavery in this area, special territorial laws and constitutional provisions permitted exceptions at these salines. The lessees brought in Negroes as slaves or indentured servants and used them extensively in manufacturing salt. The census of 1820 for Gallatin County listed 239 slaves and servants. In 1818, as part of the process of making a new state, Congress gave the salines to Illinois but forbade the sale of the land. The state continued to lease the springs and used the revenue to finance part of the land. The commercial production of salt continued here until about 1837 when the low price for salt made the expense of extracting it from the brine prohibitive.|
|Greene||Thomas Carlin||The marker is located in Carrollton, on the southeast corner (South Main and Fifth Street) of the Greene County Courthouse.||39° 18.074||-090° 24.456||9/9/2000||The Illinois State Historical Society||Thomas Carlin, sixth elected Governor of Illinois (1838-1842), was an early settler of Illinois and a prominent figure in organizing Greene County and establishing Carrollton as its county seat in 1821.
Born in Kentucky in 1789, Carlin came to the Illinois Territory and served in the War of 1812. He settled on farm land, part of which is now Carrollton.
He served as the county's first sheriff (1821), as a captain in the Black Hawk Militia (1832), as a state senator (1825-1833), and as a land office receiver (1834).
He died in 1852 and is buried in Carrollton City Cemetery.
|Grundy||Diamond Mine Disaster, The||The marker is located in the town of Diamond, on the north side of IL 113, in the Diamond Mine Disaster Memorial Park. It is several blocks east of the Community Park and the Village offices.||41° 17.323||-088° 15.012||1984||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Diamond Mine of the Wilmington Coal Mining and Manufacturing Company, located near Braidwood on the Grundy-Will County line, was the site of a major mine disaster in Illinois.
The mine was on a marshy tract of land that had no natural drainage. At midday of February 16, 1883, the east side of the mine collapsed from the weight of melting snow, ice, and heavy rains. An alarm was sounded, andminers who were near the escapment shaft hurried to the surface. The main passage to the shaft flooded rapidly, and the weight of the water sealed the ventilation doors in the tunnels. Escape became impossible, and rescue attempts were futile.
Other mines in the area suspended operations, and their workers helped build a dam on the site. For thirty-eight days seven steam pumps removed water from the mine. Volunteers descended the shaft on March 25, and the first bodies were recovered on March 26. The recovery effort was hampered by accumulations of debris and gas as well as by falling rock. Several days later the mine was sealed with the remaining forty-six bodies entombed.
Numerous men and boys died in the disaster; two were thirteen years of age, and two were fourteen. Contributions for families of the victims were received from across the United States and totaled more than $42,000, including $10,000 appropriated by the Illinois General Assembly. In 1898 the United Mine Workers of America placed a monument at the site.
|Grundy||Illinois and Michigan Canal, The||The marker was located in Morris on the west side of IL Route 47, immediately north of canal. It was in a grass plat south of Standard Oil gasoline station, about 10 feet west of slab and 15 feet north of canal bank. It is currently missing.||41° 21.339||-088° 25.287||1956||The Illinois State Historical Society||This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and their produce between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Valley, it figured largely in the development of northern Illinois. Spuperseded by the Deep Waterway after fifty years of use, it is now devoted to recreational purposes.|
|Hancock||Carthage, Illinois||The marker is located two miles west of Carthage at a turnout on the south side of IL 136.||40° 24.184||-091° 11.534||1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Hancock County, established in 1829, had no permanent county seat for four years. On February 13, 1833, the General Assembly commissioned William Gilham, Scott Riggs and John Hardin to establish a permanent county seat, which was named Carthage and was incorporated in 1837.
Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church, and his brother Hyrum were shot to death in the Old Carthage Jail on June 27, 1844. Joseph had chosen Nauvoo as headquarters for the Church in 1839, and by 1844 Hancock County was a Mormon Center. However, unrest concerning the authority of the Mormon leaders was extensive. When an anti-Mormon newspaper in Nauvoo was destroyed, Joseph and Hyrum were jailed at Carthage to await trial. Governor Thomas Ford assigned the Carthage Grays, a militia unit, to guard them. A mob overpowered the guards and rushed the captives who with two Mormon friends, Willard Richards and John Taylor, occupied an unlocked, second floor room in the jail.
Hyrum was killed and the Prophet was shot several times before he fell from a window to the ground. Taylor, later the leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1877-1887), recovered from his wounds while Richards was uninjured. Conflict between Mormons and their neighbors continued until the Mormons completed their exodus from Illinois (1846). The Mormons have restored the Old Carthage Jail.
During the 1858 U. S. Senatorial campaign Stephen A. Douglas spoke at Carthage on October 11 and Abraham Lincoln spoke on October 22.
|Hancock||Green Plains||The marker is located 24 miles north of Quincy and 10 miles south of Hamilton on the southeast corner of the intersection of IL 96 and County Road 600.||40° 17.254||-091° 22.492||9/9/2006||Descendents of William W. Taylor, Mormon Historic Sites Foundation, and the Illinois State Historical Society||Here once stood the thriving community of Green Plains. Established in the early 1830's, the settlement straddled four Hancock County Townships and included log homes, a store, a blacksmith shop, a post office, and several cemeteries. Levi Williams, a prominent settler who moved to Green Plains in the early 1830's, served as a county road commissioner and later as postmaster. In 1840 he was commissioned a colonel in the 59th Regiment in the state militia, commanding the Carthage Greys. He played a prominent role in mlitary actions against the Latter-Day Saints and their leader, Joseph Smith. Williams died in 1860 and is buried in the Green Plains Cemetery, located one-half mile north. The community was abandoned in the 1860's. Green Plains was also home to Mormon refugees, including the family of William W. Taylor. Born in 1787 in Martin County, North Carolina, Taylor married Elizabeth Patrick in 1811. In 1831, the family moved to Monroe County, Missouri, and joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. The Taylors were forced to leave Missouri in 1838 under the Extermination Orders of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs. Taylor died 9 September 1839 leaving Elizabeth a widow with 14 children. He was buried 300 feet east of this spot with about 40 others in the Old Pioneer Cemetery on land once owned by Levi Williams. Elizabeth immigrated with most of her children to Utah where she died in 1880. Sponsored by descendents of William W. Taylor, Mormon Historic Sites Foundation, and the Illinois State Historical Society. Dedicated 9 September 2006|
|Hancock||Historic Nauvoo||The marker is located north of Nauvoo on the west side of Route 96 on a small turnout across from cemetery.||40° 33.060||-091° 21.830||1936||State of Illinois||In 1839 the Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, settled at Nauvoo and made it their chief city. During their residence its population reached 15,000. After long friction with non-Mormons the Mormons were expelled in 1846. Three years later French Communists callled Icarians established a society here which lasted until 1857.|
|Hancock||Icarian Community in Nauvoo||The marker is located on the east side of the parking lot of the Nauvoo Historical Museum, in the Nauvoo State Park, on the east side of Route 96.||40° 32.615||-091° 23.131||1975||Descendants of Icaria and The Illinois State Historical Society||A communal society of French Icarians was established at Nauvoo on 1849. Led by Etienne Cabet, a French political theorist, the Icarians believed that all property must be held communally. The community was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly in early 1851. At that time it had 355 members. They operated their own sawmill and grist mill and a commercial distillery. Disputes later arose over Cabet's leadership, and the Icarians began to resettle in other states. The Nauvoo community survived, however, until about 1860 - longer that any other secular communal society in Illinois.|
|Hancock||Nauvoo, Illinois||The marker is located south of Nauvoo in a large turnout/rest area on the west side of Route 96.||40° 32.359||-091° 23.189||5/12/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Nauvoo was once the site of a Sauk and Fox Village. After the Indians moved west of the Mississippi, promoters attempted to develop town sites here but the marshy bottom lands attracted few settlers.
In 1839, the Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith chose the town, then called Commerce, as the home for his followers, who had been driven from Missouri. The Mormons named the community Nauvoo, said to mean 'beautiful place,' and obtained a special charter from the Illinois legislature, which gave the city government its own courts, militia, university, and all other governmental powers not prohibited by the federal and state constitutions.
Mormon converts from all parts of America and Europe soon swelled the population to about 15,000 making Nauvoo one of the largest cities in Illinois by 1845. But some of the Mormons as well as their gentile neighbors began to resent the civil and religious authority of the Mormon leaders, and frictions in the area grew severe. When the Nauvoo City Council had an anti-Mormon newspaper destroyed, the Mormon leaders were arrested and jailed at Carthage. There, on June 27, 1844, an armed mob shot and killed Joseph Smith and his brother, Hyrum. Conflict between the Mormons and their neighbors continued until 1846 when the Mormons completed their exodus from the state.
In 1849, Etienne Cabet's followers, the Icarians, came to Nauvoo to practice their form of religious communism but dissensions soon weakened the colony. Their experiment lasted less than ten years.
|Hancock||Old Jail, The||The marker is located on the southeast corner of Fayette and Buchanan Streets, near the west side of Carthage. It faces Route 136 and is on the northwest corner of the square, where the historic jail is located.||40° 24.978||-091° 08.367||8/10/1935||State of Illinois||In the old Carthage Jail, which stands one block south of here, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Prophet and patriarch of the Mormon Church, were killed by a mob on June 27, 1844. Two years later the Mormons withdrew from Illinois, where they had settled in 1839, to the Great Salt Lake.|
|Hancock||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located west of Hamilton in a large triangular area where IL 136 meets IL 96, close to the Mississippi.||40° 23.813||-091° 21.102||5/12/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchmen Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the American Revolution the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. U.S. Route 136 enters Illinois at Hamilton, north of Warsaw, the site of Fort Edwards erected during the War of 1812 to counter British influence at Rock Island. It proceeds east through Carthage where, in 1844, the jailed Mormon leader Joseph Smith was killed defending himself from an angry mob. The highway crosses the Illinois River at Havana and runs east passing north of Lincoln, Illinois, the site of the reconstructed Postville Court House. While Practicing law on the 8th Judicial Circuit Abraham Lincoln attended trials in the original building. Route 136 passes south of Funks Grove named for Isaac Funk one of a group of farmers who raised large herds of cattle for shipment to eastern markets. Route 136 exits Illinois northeast of Danville, home of Joseph 'Uncle Joe' Cannon the powerful speaker of the US House of Representatives. Along its approximate 235 mile length Route 136 passes through eight of Illinois' 102 counties and three of its county seats.|
|Hardin||Fluorite Mining||The marker is located in Rosiclare on the right side, as one enters the town on Main Street, after Route 43 comes to an end. It is near the entrance of the American Fluorite Museum.||37° 25.407||-088° 20.839||6/3/1995||Hardin County Historical and Genealogical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Fluorite, the official Illinois State Mineral, was discovered in 1839 by James Anderson while digging a well near Fairview Landing one half mile SW of this site. Fluorite was a waste product until the steel industry began using the mineral in their open hearth process in 1888. Rosiclare Lead and Fluorspar Mining Co., located 255 yards NW of this site, was the first major producer of fluorite. The largest and deepest fluorite mines in the world are located in Hardin County. For many years these mines have produced about three-fourths of the fluorite mined in the United States.|
|Hardin||Ford's Ferry Road and Pott's Tavern||The marker was located 1.5 miles south of the Gallatin-Hardin County Line, on the east side of IL Route 1, at the foot of Pott's Hill, 8 miles north of Cave-In -Rock. (missing)||37° 34.525||-088° 11.168||1985||Hardin County Historical and Genealogical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||James Ford, a powerful and scheming leader of a gang of outlaws, owned a ferry that crossed the Ohio River near Cave-in-Rock from 1823 to 1833. Ford's Gang helped him acquire a fortune in land, money, slaves, and livestock by robbing and murdering travelers. Ford's Ferry Road was a ten-mile wooded trail from the ferry to Pott's Tavern, where weary settlers who had escaped Ford's highwaymen were victims of the same fate at the hands of owner Bill Potts. The Ford and Potts era at Cave-In-Rock ended with the murder of Ford in 1833 by another gang member.|
|Henderson||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located west of Biggsville on IL 34 in the Indian Mound Rest Area.||7/15/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Soceity||In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois country for France. By the 1763 Treaty ending the French and Indian War, this area passed to England. During the American Revoution, George Rogers Clark's men captured it for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Illinois was later governed as part of the Old Northwest Territory, the Indiana Territory, and the Illinois Territory. In 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Much of the land between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers was a Federal Military Tract, where veterans of the War of 1812 could claim 160 acres in partial compensation for their services. Few veterans actually took possession of their lands, however, and 'squatters,' who had no valid land titles, were among the first white men to populate the area. From 1846 to 1861, nearly 1,000 Swedish religious dissenters lived at Bishop Hill, a communal settlement north of Galesburg. Their experience attracted other Swedish immigrants to work on farms and railroads. Among them was the family of poet and author Carl Sandburg. His birthplace in Galesburg is a State Historic Site. The Illinois segment of the Great River Road extends about 550 miles along the Mississippi from the Wisconsin border to Cairo and passes many Indian mounds, a reminder of civilization before the coming of the white men.|
|Henry||Benjamin Dann Walsh||The marker is located eight miles south of Cambridge in the rest area on the west side of IL 82.||1968||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Benjamin Dann Walsh, Illinois state entomoligist from 1867 to 1869, was a pioneer in the application of insect study to agriculture. Born in England on September 21, 1808, he was intended for the ministry. However, he chose the literary field and wrote for newspapers and magazines for several years. A man of varied interest, he published a pamphlet on univeristy reform and a translation of The Comedies of Aristophanes. In 1838 he married Rebecca Finn and came to the United States. For a short time he lived in Chicago and then moved to a farm near Cambridge where he remained for thirteen years. In 1851 he moved to Rock Island and engaged in the lumber business until 1858. Thereafter, he devoted himself to his long time hobby of entomology and was soon a recognized leader in the field. His first published entomological work appeared in 1860. In his lifetime he published 385 titles plus an additional 478 in collaboration with Charles V. Riley, another well-known entomologist. Walsh contributed regularly to the Prairie Farmer, Valley Farmer, and Illinois Farmer, was an editor of the Practical Entomologist, and was co-founder and editor of the American Entomologist with Riley. His private collection numbered 30,000 insects. His insect studies impressed scientists and, perhaps more important, agriculturists. He was one of the first to advocate that farmers use scientists methods to control insects. His death on November 18, 1869 resulted from a railroad accident near Rock Island.|
|Henry||Bishop Hill||The marker is located west of Galva, on the north side of US 34/IL 17, immediately west of the country road leading north to Bishop Hill (1670th Street)||41° 09.906||-090° 07.029||1987||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Two miles north of here, religious dissident immigrants from Sweden founded the communal society of Bishop Hill in 1846. The charismatic Erik Jansson lead the society spiritually and temporally until 1850 when he was murdered. By 1854, a total of 1200 followers of all ages and backgrounds had arrived at Bishop Hill. Overcoming many hardships and trials, 12,000 acres of virgin land was improved for agricultural purposes. Various crops, including flax, broom corn and grain were grown. Orchards were also planted and furniture was manufactured. In 1861, dissatisfaction and disillusionment resulted in a breakup of the society and the land was divided among the members.|
|Henry||Great Sauk Trail, The||The marker is located 0.7 miles south of Johnson Sauk Trail State Park on the northeast corner of the intersection IL 78 and County Road 1150 North.||41° 18.715||-089° 54.347||7/9/2000||Sauk Trail Organization for Preservation and The Illinois State Historical Society||This East-West road crossing Route 78 is one of the few intact segments of the Great Sauk Trail from the Mississippi River to Lake Erie. It was blazed along this glacial moraine by buffalo thousands of years ago as they traveled around Lake Wenno, meaning "place of abundant game," on their way to eastern grasslands. Many prehistoric and historic villages and campsites dotted the trail area here because it was one of the best hunting areas in North America.
The glacial lake gradually dried up, leaving the Great Willow Swamp, which extended about 600 square miles. The remnants of it were finally tiled and drained in the early 1900's. While tilling and settling the land, early farmers and their descendants uncovered hundreds of ancient artifacts and other evidence of these early residents of Kewanee Township. These settlers named the trail for the Sauks, who still used the trail regularly to collect annuities from the British at Malden, Canada, for fighting in the War of 1812. The Illinois, Mesquawki, Winnebago, and Potawatomi also used the trail. It then became the first stage coach road to pass through the area, and was used by Forty-Niners and settlers in Conestoga wagons until about 1900.
Today, visitors can still travel this trail, used for thousands of years by Native Americans and European settlers, through Kewanee Township and on through Neponset Township of Bureau County.
|Henry||Military Tract||The marker is three miles south of Orion in the rest area on the east side of US 150.||1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Military land bounties were offered by the United States Government in the early national period to attract men into the Army or to reward soldiers for their services. Warrants were issued to the men for these bounties. One of the three tracts created to meet the warrants given in the War of 1812 was located in the State of Illinois, in the triangle between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. The Northern Boundary, which extended ninety miles east from the Mississippi, is one mile north of here and ninety miles north of the base line of the Fourth Principal meridian. The Illinois tract, surveyed in 1815-1816, contained more than 5,000,000 acres, of which 3,500,000 were allocated to military bounties. Comprising 207 entire townships, each six miles square, and 61 fractional townships, the tract included fourteen present-day counties and parts of four others. Soldiers of the War of 1812, who received 160 acres each, were required to locate their warrants by lottery. Most soldiers or their heirs decided, however, against moving great distances to take up thier claims. Instead, they sold their warrants to speculators. One company alone acquired 900,000 acres. Such large-scale land holdings aroused frontier hostility against absentee speculators. Squatters settled upon the lands, ignoring titles and rights. Many speculators were unable to realize a quick profit and , faced with ever-increasing taxation, lost their titles or sold their lands at a loss of money. Population growth, which was rapid in parts of the region from about 1823 to 1837, was retarded by conflicting land claims. Final adjustment of the claims was made only after years of litigation and much legislation.|
|Henry||Woodland Palace||The marker is located three miles northeast of Kewanee in Francis Park. It is on County Road 900, 0.4 miles north of US 34, along the Henry/Bureau County Line.||41° 16.703||-089° 51.556||1974||Francis Park Foundation, the City of Kewanee and The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the home of Fred Francis, inventor and innovator, artist and poet. Born near Kewanee in 1856, he graduated from the Illinois Industrial University, Urbana, in 1878. While there, he was one of the designers and builders of the 'Class of 78' clock, now in the north tower of the Illini Union. In this home, which he built, he incorporated many innovations, including a water purification system and air conditioning. Francis died in 1926 and bequethed this estate to the City of Kewanee, to be maintained as a city park and museum.|
|Iroquois||Butterfield Trail||The marker is located 3 miles east of Gilman and 4 miles west of Crescent City, on the south side of US 24.||40° 46.079||-087° 55.338||1971||Gilman Lions Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||For many years Butterfield Trail was one of the main routes from east-central Illinois to the Chicago area. In 1831 Ben Butterfield marked out the trail from Danville to Lockport, where he had settled the previous year. The trail crossed Spring Creek two miles northwest of Buckley. Following an old Indian trail, it stayed west of the creek, continuing northward and passing this point. It avoided the Iroquois River and forded the Kankakee west of Bourbonnais. Thence it ran to Hickory Creek and the Des Plaines River. At a point near Joliet it forked, both forks leading to Chicago.|
|Jackson||Carbondale College & Southern Illinois College||0/0/0000||The City of Carbondale, The First Presbyterian Chuch, The First Christian Church, Southern Illinois University, and The Illinois State Historical Society.||Carbondale College & Southern Illinois College The evolution of Southern Illinois University began here in 1856 when Presbyterians founded Carbondale College. Suffering hardships during the civil war, the College was sold to the First Christian church in the mid 1860s and renamed Southern Illinois College. The existing college with a student body of 300 was pivotal in Carbondale being chosen as the location for Southern Illinois Normal University in 1869. Leading these efforts were town founder Daniel Brush, businessman James Campbell, and minister Clark Braden. The university opened at its current location In 1874, and was renamed Southern Illinois University in 1947.|
|Jackson||Colonel Lindorf Ozborn||0/0/0000||First Bank And Trust Company of Murphysboro, The Gen. John A. Logan Museum, and The Illinois State Historical Society.||Colonel Lindorf Ozburn Lindorf Ozburn, born in Jackson county, Illinois in 1823, married Diza Glenn, John A. Logan's cousin. Ozburn, who served with Logan in the Mexican war, joined the Illinois 31st Infantry at the beginning of the civil war. On Logan's promotion to general, he became its colonel. When Lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation, Ozburn's long-held beliefs forced him to resign his commission. He was killed in Carbondale, Illinois, in 1864 by William Weaver, whom Ozburn had disciplined while in the service. Weaver was arrested and housed in the jail, which once occupied this corner. A mob stormed the jail and killed Weaver.|
|Jackson||Elizabeth Jenkins Logan||The marker is located in Murphysboro at 1403 Walnut Street and is mounted on the outside wall, facing north, of the First Bank and Trust building which is on the south side of Walnut Street.||37° 45.853||-089° 20.287|
|Jackson||First Coal Mine - Jackson County||The marker is located just south of Murphysboro and immediately south of the bridge across the Big Muddy River on the west side of IL 127. (missing)||37° 45.471||-089° 19.648||1937||State of Illinois||First Coal Mine The first coal mining operations in Illinois took place in the Big Muddy River bluffs one quarter mile west of here. These outcroppings not only supplied local needs but at an early date - perhaps as early as 1810 - coal from them was sent by flatboat to New Orleans. Erected by the State of Illinois 1937|
|Jackson||George Rogers Clark Campsite (3rd)||The marker is located on the west side of the Carbondale Airport Road, one-half mile north of IL 13.||37° 45.547||-089° 16.218||7/2/2003||Bowman’s Company, Illinois Humanities Council and Illinois State Historical Society||Lt. Col. Clark and his troop of 170 Virginians camped near here on July 2, 1778. It was their third campsite during a march from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia to capture that post from the British. Earlier that day, the troop was lost for a time on Phelp's Prairie. The next day, they would cross the Big Muddy River at Marshall's Ford. The Kaskaskia attack and a later one at Vincennes, Indiana, secured the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.|
|Jackson||George Rogers Clark Campsite (4th.)||The marker is located in Ava in the City Park, which is on IL 4.||37° 53.106||-089° 29.590||3/1/2007||Bowman’s Company, City of Ava, and the Illinois Foundation for Frontier Studies and the Illinois State Historical Society.||In the third year of the American War for Independence, Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark and his army of 170 Virginia volunteers camped five miles southeast of here. On July 2, 1778, Clark made the fourth of five camps on his march from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia. Two days later, Clark liberated Kaskaskia, and then moved east to Vincennes, thus securing the Illinois Territory from the British and their Indian allies.|
|Jackson||Woodlawn Cemetery||(missing) The marker was located in Carbondale, in Woodlawn Cemetery, south of Main Street (IL 13)||Carbondale Preservation Commission|
|Jackson||Woodlawn Cemetery Memorial Day Celebration||The marker is located in Carbondale on the southwest corner of Woodlawn Cemetery, which is on the south side of Main Street (IL 13), two blocks east of the railroad tracks.||37° 43.600||-089° 12.671||2001||City of Carbondale and The Illinois State Historical Society||On April 29, 1866, over 200 veterans and several thousand citizens gathered at Woodlawn Cemetery to honor those who had died in the Civil War. General John A. Logan delivered the keynote address, saying "Every man's life belongs to his country, and no man has the right to refuse when his country calls for it." This memorial service influenced Logan, as Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic to issue G.A.R. General Order No. 11 on May 5, 1868. This order instructed his comrades to observe May 30, 1868, and successive May 30ths, as Decoration Day by "strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late Rebellion."|
|Jefferson||Appellate Courthouse||The marker is located in Mt. Vernon, on the east side of the Jefferson County Courthouse Grounds, facing east at 14th and Main Streets.||38° 19.051||-088° 54.476||5/8/1974||Jefferson County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This building was constructed for the Southern Division of the Illinois Supreme Court, one of three Divisions created by the Constitution of 1848. Court met in lodge halls in Mount Vernon prior to completion of the center section of this building about 1857. The 1870 Constitution established a system of Appellate Courts and Mount Vernon was named the seat of the Fourth District. The Supreme Court shared the building until 1897, after which all of its sessions were held in Springfield.|
|Jefferson||Goshen Road||The marker is located in the parking lot of the Jefferson County Historical Society's Pioneer Park, which is in the extreme northwest part of Mt. Vernon. It is across from St. Mary's Cemetery, on North 27th Street, one half mile north of Richview Road, and is just northwest of the Mitchell Museum-Cedarhurst estate.||38° 19.950||-088° 55.477||1973||Jefferson County Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||The Goshen Road was one of the main arteries of travel in the early 1800's, when Illinois was frontier country. The road ran in a northwesterly direction from Shawneetown to Edwardsville -- a distance of more than 150 miles. Shawneetown and Edwardsville were two of the leading commercial towns in Illinois. In the vast area between these towns most of the early settlements were along the Goshen Road, which was three miles east of this point in Jefferson County. In 1821, after the county was organized, an alternate road was surveyed in order to pass through Mt. Vernon, the county seat.|
|Jefferson||Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co||The marker is located in the southeast part of Mt. Vernon, on the west side of Shawnee Road between Short and Brief Streets. It is located in front of the large, abandoned central office building for the railroad car manufacturing company.||38° 18.514||-088° 53.769||1992||Dale’s Classic Cars and the Illinois State Historical Society||When railroads were king, The Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company brought prosperity and recognition to this community. With freight car building being the primary business, the Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company's products were sold to institutions which carried its name all across the civilized world. Established on April 16, 1890, it was in operation for 64 years.
In 1926, The Mount Vernon Car Manufacturing Company erected this building as its central office. In addition to having the largest payroll for its era, its local tax revenue made a large contribution to the economic expansion of this community.
|Jersey||Hamilton Primary School||The marker is located in the town of Otterville, on the grounds of the large two-story stone school, which is on the north side of Main Street. Otterville is about 8 miles southwest of Jerseyville.||39° 03.051||-090° 23.841||1982||Friends of Hamilton Primary School and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1834 Dr. Silas Hamilton, physician and humanitarian, bequethed $4,000 for construction and operation of a building for educational and religious purposes. A stone school was opened in 1836, and the tuition-free education for local students attracted families to this area. The school was razed in 1872, rebuilt and enlarged, with the original stones at the base. Classes were held here until 1971. George Washington, a slave freed by Dr. Hamilton, studied here, became successful, and established a perpetual scholarship fund for Americans of African descent. He also provided for the erection of a monument to his former master.|
|Jersey||Legend of the Piasa, The||The marker is located on Il. RT. 100 which is the Great River Road six miles northwest from Alton.||38° 53.874||-090° 11.946||1984||The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 Jacques Marquette reported that he and fellow French explorer Louis Jolliet discovered a painting of what was probably two 'Water Monsters' on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near present-day Alton. By 1700 those pictographic creatures were no longer visible. In 1836 the novelist John Russell described an image cut into the bluff of a legendary dragon-like creature with wings. According to Russell, the creature was called the Piasa, 'The Bird That Devours Men.' That version of the pictograph as well as myths about the Piasa have become prominent in folklore.|
|Jo Daviess||Apple River Fort||The marker is located near the visitor’s center for the reconstructed Apple River Fort at 311 East Myrtle Street in Elizabeth along US Rt. 20.||42° 19.084||-090° 13.274||1934||The Illinois State Historical Society||Here, during the Black Hawk War, was located Apple River Fort, constructed by 45 residents in response to rumors of an Indian uprising. The 10,000 sq. foot fort with walls 12 feet high contained several cabins and a two story blockhouse. On June 24 , 1832, Black Hawk and 200 warriors attacked while most of the men were out hunting. Elizabeth Armstrong rallied the women and defenders until relief arrived. Only one frontiersman, George W. Herlerode, lost his life during the 45 minute battle. In honor of Mrs. Armstrong, the Apple River Settlement was renamed Elizabeth on November 25, 1842.|
|Jo Daviess||DeSoto House, The||The marker is located in Galena at 230 Main Street, at its intersection with Green Street. It is mounted on the southeast corner of the DeSoto House Hotel.||42° 24.871||-090° 25.794||1959||The Illinois State Historical Society||Opened in April, 1855, the five-story, 240 room De Soto House was 'the largest and most luxurious hotel in the West.' Abraham Lincoln spoke from its balcony in 1856 and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858. Ulysses S. Grant maintained his 1868 presidential campaign headquarters here. By 1880 Galena's prosperity had faded and the hotel's two upper stories were removed. Erected by the Illinois State Historical Society, 1959.|
|Jo Daviess||Galena, Illinois||The marker is located east of Galena at a road side rest area park where IL 84 and U.S. Rt. US 20 come together. It is on the north side of the highway. There is a large observation tower at the site.||42° 19.980||-090° 16.348||6/15/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Prior to 1820, Indians and occasional white traders occupied LaPointe, the name given to the present site of Galena. The settlement grew rapidly in 1823 and 1824 as each boat deposited new arrivals on the banks of the Fever (now Galena) River. The town was laid out in 1826, and the name changed to Galena (Latin for sulphide of lead). Terror reigned in the region during the Black Hawk War in 1832, but the suppression of the Indians cleared the way for unrestricted white settlement.
As supply center for the mines and shipping point for the growing river commerce, Galena became a thriving city when Chicago was still a swamp village. Galena's zenith arrived in the 1840's, and residents lavished money on elaborate houses, many of which still stand today. By the 1850's the surface lead deposits were depleted; the Galena River, once over 300 feet wide, began to gather silt; and the railroads started to take the river commerce.
Ulysses S. Grant arrived here in 1860 to work in his father's leather store. A year later this still obscure clerk marched off to the Civil War; in 1865, he returned in tiumph to a gift mansion donated by his Galena neighbors. Grant was so prominet that he overshadowed the town's eight other Civil War generals.
In 1869, after his election as President of the United States, Grant appointed his Galena friends John A. Rawlins, Secretary of War; Elihu B. Washburne, Secretary of State; Ely S. Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
|Jo Daviess||Galena, Illinois||Ths is one of two identical markers near Galena. It was located 8.5 miles east of Galena at a roadside park on the north side of US 30. It is currently missing.||6/15/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Prior to 1820, Indians and occasional white traders occupied LaPointe, the name given to the present site of Galena. The settlement grew rapidly in 1823 and 1824 as each boat deposited new arrivals on the banks of the Fever (now Galena) River. The town was laid out in 1826, and the name changed to Galena (Latin for sulphide of lead). Terror reigned in the region during the Black Hawk War in 1832, but the suppression of the Indians cleared the way for unrestricted white settlement. As supply center for the mines and shipping point for the growing river commerce, Galena became a thriving city when Chicago was still a swamp village. Galena's zenith arrived in the 1840's, and residents lavished money on elaborate houses, many of which still stand today. By the 1850's the surface lead deposits were depleted; the Galena River, once over 300 feet wide, began to gather silt; and the railroads started to take the river commerce. Ulysses S. Grant arrived here in 1860 to work in his father's leather store. A year later this still obscure clerk marched off to the Civil War; in 1865, he returned in tiumph to a gift mansion donated by his Galena neighbors. Grant was so prominet that he overshadowed the town's eight other Civil War generals. In 1869, after his election as President of the United States, Grant appointed his Galena friends John A. Rawlins, Secretary of War; Elihu B. Washburne, Secretary of State; Ely S. Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.|
|Jo Daviess||Lead Mines, The||The marker is located 8.5 miles east of Galena at a roadside park on the north side of US 20, with the Galena City marker.||6/15/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society The prehistoric glaciers which leveled most of Illinois left much of this Jo Daviess County area untouched. Thus, the lead and zinc ore deposits of the earth's bedrock remained on or near the surface. The indians had a crude system of mining, and reports of their mines reached the French. About 1690 Nicholas Perrot visited the mines in this region, and in 1700 Pierre Charles Le Sueur took sample ore from the deposits along the Mississippi River. The great minng fields marked on early French maps, combined with glowing tales of upper Mississippi minerals, led John Law, a Scot promoter, to emphasize their possibilities in 1717. The French government became so involved in backing him that it bordered on bankruptcy when Law's 'Mississippi Bubble' burst. In 1822 Colonel Richard M. Johnson obtained the first lease from the Federal Government to mine lead around Galena, and he was given a military guard since the Fox Indians were still occupying the area. The United States Government expected to receive royalties on the lead produced but collection attempts failed, and in 1847 the lands were sold outright. The lead mines around Galena reached their peak in 1845, when they produced about 83 percent of the total United States output. Lead in the surface veins was finally exhausted in the 1850's, and without the necessary capital for intensive mining, lead production declined during the last half of the nineteenth century.||The prehistoric glaciers which leveled most of Illinois left much of this Jo Daviess County area untouched. Thus, the lead and zinc ore deposits of the earth's bedrock remained on or near the surface. The indians had a crude system of mining, and reports of their mines reached the French. About 1690 Nicholas Perrot visited the mines in this region, and in 1700 Pierre Charles Le Sueur took sample ore from the deposits along the Mississippi River. The great minng fields marked on early French maps, combined with glowing tales of upper Mississippi minerals, led John Law, a Scot promoter, to emphasize their possibilities in 1717. The French government became so involved in backing him that it bordered on bankruptcy when Law's 'Mississippi Bubble' burst. In 1822 Colonel Richard M. Johnson obtained the first lease from the Federal Government to mine lead around Galena, and he was given a military guard since the Fox Indians were still occupying the area. The United States Government expected to receive royalties on the lead produced but collection attempts failed, and in 1847 the lands were sold outright. The lead mines around Galena reached their peak in 1845, when they produced about 83 percent of the total United States output. Lead in the surface veins was finally exhausted in the 1850's, and without the necessary capital for intensive mining, lead production declined during the last half of the nineteenth century.|
|Jo Daviess||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located northwest of Galena at a roadside park on the north side of US 20 at its junction with IL 84.||11/17/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Nathaniel Pope, Congressional delegate from the Illinois Territory in 1818, persuaded Congress to set the northern border of the new state sixty miles above the previous line which had run from the southernmost tip of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. Thus, part of the lead mine region around Galena, the site of Chicago and the fourteen northern counties of the state became a part of Illinois. Alarm spread across northwestern Illinois in 1832 when Black Hawk and a band of dissident Sauk and Fox Indians crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. Stockades dotted the area until the defeat of the Indians cleared the way for increased white settlement.|
|Johnson||George Rogers Clark Campsite||The marker is located on the west side of IL 37 below Goreville and just south of the entrance to Ferne Cliff State Park.||37° 31.353||-088° 57.928||7/3/2003||Bowman's Company, Illinois Humanities Council, and Illinois State Historical Society||This marker commemorates the July 1, 1778, campsite for Lt. Col. Clark's troop of 170 volunteers. At the time, the site had a nearby spring and was north of a place called Buffalo Gap. The men were marching from Fort Massac to capture the British post at Kaskaskia. This attack and a later one at Vincennes, Indiana, prevented the British and their Indian allies from invading Kentucky. It also secured the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.|
|Kane||Billy and Ma Sunday||The marker is located just west of the intersection of IL Route 31 and IL Route 72, on the grounds of the Dundee Township Highway Department, which is south of Route 72 (Main Street) and located on Old Sleepy Hollow Road, which is immediately east of Carrington Drive.||42° 06.114||-088° 18.885||1970||Troop 35 of the Boy Scouts of America, Dundee Township Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Evangelist William 'Billy' Sunday and his wife Helen 'Ma' Sunday owned this farm, 1899-1913, and spent their summers here. Ma was born on the farm. Billy was born in Ames, Iowa, in 1862. He played outfield for Chicago and other National League Baseball Clubs, 1883-1890. From 1896 until his death in 1935 he conducted religious revivals in cities and towns across the nation. His wife shared his work. In May-June 1900 Billy led a month-long revival in West Dundee Park.|
|Kane||Elgin Milk Condensing Company||The marker is located in Elgin, on the east side of the Fox River, between Kimble Street Bridge and East Highland Street Bridge, where North Street and North Grove Avenue meet.||42° 01.783||-088° 16.645||1992||The Elgin Heritage Commission and the Illinois State Historical Society||Gail Borden, pioneer in the food preservative industry, established a milk condensing plant on this site in 1865. His discovery incorporated a process by which water was evaporated from milk, and sugar added as a preservative. This process, patented in 1856, increased the availability and variety in dairy products, allowing the populace a sanitary and nourishing alternative to fresh milk. The stringent procedures he employed inspired high standards, revolutionizing the dairy industry by 1881. This company was the largest of its kind and a major factory in determining Elgin's reputation as a dairy center. Production ceased in 1918 due to the rising cost of milk. Elgin's Gail Borden Library, located nearby, is named in his honor.|
|Kane||Elgin National Watch Company||The marker is located in Elgin, at the entrance of the Clock Tower Plaza. It faces north toward the intersection of National Street and South Grove Avenue. The Plaza is a block east of the Fox River.||42° 02.436||-088° 17.202||10/15/1989||The Elgin Heritage Commission and the Illinois State Historical Society||From 1866 to 1966 this site was occupied by the Elgin National Watch Company. This was the first watch factory built west of the Alleghenies and grew to become the world's largest. During its lifetime over 60 million 'Elgin' watches were manufactured here. The building was highlighted by a 144 foot tall clock tower containing dials with numerals three feet in length - a foot longer than those of London's 'Big Ben.' Located nearby was an observatory built for astronomical time determination before the advent of national standards. The observatory is now used as a planetarium by School District U-46.|
|Kane||Elgin Road Races||The marker is on the far west side of Elgin on the southeast corner of the junction of Nesler Road and US 20. It is on the property of The National Bank – Elgin, 3151 US 20.||42° 02.341||-088° 21.792||2010||The Elgin Area Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This marker is along the "south leg" of the Elgin road races. Beginning in 1910, many leading drivers and mechanics competed here in grueling tests of speed and endurance that contributed to the development of the modern automobile. Manufacturers were attracted to these races because the course had no cross roads, steep hills, railroad tracks, or population centers to reduce the car's speed. The race's success was enhanced by proximity to Chicago and the cooperation of area farmers. The 8-1/2 mile route consisted of oil-soaked dirt and gravel roads. From here, the course extended east onto Larkin Avenue, north on McLean Boulevard, west on Highland Avenue, south on Coombs Road, then east again on Galena Road - now route 20. The first entries were factory stock models with the fenders and windshields removed. Beginning in 1911, race cars designed for the Indianapolis 500 were allowed to compete. Thousands of spectators attended each year as racing continued from 1911 through 1915. After being suspended during World War I, the contests resumed in 1919 and 1920 - a period when cars took on a more streamlined appearance. The Elgin Races lost favor as motorists and farmers objected to road closures. For safety reasons, open road courses like these were replaced by closed track racing. After a revival in 1933 to coincide with the Chicago World's Fair, the Elgin Road races passed into automotive history.|
|Kane||Garfield Farm and Inn||Route 38 East, LaFox, IL||10/14/1989||The Garfield Farm Museum and The Illinois State Historical Society||Timothy P. Garfield's 1840's farm and teamster inn typifies the establishment of commercial farming and the transportation network that made Chicago a major trade center.|
|Kane||George Marshall Home||Dunham Road, St. Charles||9/27/2012||The DuPage County Historical Museum and the Illinois State Historical Society||The stone posts located 75 yards to the south of this sign mark the front gate of the house occupied by then-Colonel George C. Marshall, Jr.and his wife, Katherine, in 1936. Marshall lived here while serving with the Illinois National Guard in Chicago. While living here he received his promotion to Brigadier General. Marshall later served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army during World War II, and Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under the Truman administration. He was the architect of the Marshall Plan, for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize.|
|Kane||Illinois Watch Case Company||The marker is located in Elgin, at 853 Dundee Avenue, between Duncan Avenue and Slade Avenue, on the west side of the street.||42° 03.160||-088° 16.258||5/1/2007||The Elgin Heritage Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||For more than 70 years, this site was occupied by the Illinois Watch Case Company. The firm was a leader in the domestic watch industry and by the 1920's had produced more than 30 million watch cases.
A subsidiary produced jewelry goods, lockets, cigarette lighters, and the famed "Elgin American" ladies compacts. During World War II, the company won an Army-Navy Excellence Award for its production of mortar shells and war-related materials.
Foreign competition and a changing market eventually led to an end of production in the early 1960's.
|Kane||Pinkerton's Early Home||The marker is located in West Dundee on the southeast corner of South Third Street and Main Street (IL Route 72). The marker faces west toward South Third Street.||42° 05.864||-088° 16.797||1968||Troop 35 of the Boy Scouts of America, Dundee Township Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Allan Pinkerton, famous detective, had his home and cooperage on this lot, 1844-1850. Here he sheltered and employed slaves escaping to freedom. After helping to capture some counterfeiters, he became deputy sheriff of Kane County in 1848. In 1850 he founded his detective agency in Chicago. In February 1861 he was the bodyguard of President-Elect Abraham Lincoln on the train trip to Washington. Early in the Civil War he directed the spy service of the Union Army.|
|Kankakee||Bourbonnais Grove||The marker is located in Bourbonnais, on the grounds of the Bourbonnais Grove Historical Society, which is part of the Adrien M. Richard Heritage Preservation Site. It is in the 700 block of Stratford Drive, about one-half bock south of IL Route 102.||41° 09.490||-087° 53.223||8/18/1990||Bourbonnais Grove Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Bourbonnais Grove's first families came from Quebec's upper St. Lawrence Vally in the 1830's and 40's to settle what would become the largest 19th century French Canadian agrarian village in Illinois. Some immigrants moved on to found St. Anne, St. Mary, L'Erable, and Papineau. In 1865 Viateurian fathers established St. Viateur College. The Letourneau Home Museum, Maternity BVM Church and surviving Viateurian buildings are memorials to these French Canadians who were an influential part of Illinois' pioneer population.|
|Kankakee||Durham-Perry Family Legacy, The||The marker is located in Bourbonnais, on the grounds of the Perry-Durham Farm (part of the Bourbonnais Township Park District), in the 200 block of Kennedy Drive (IL Route 102).||41° 08.847||-087° 52.615||2004||The Bourbonnais Township Park District and the The Illinois State Historical Society||Thomas Durham bought 160 acres on this site in 1835 from Gurdon S. Hubbard. Known as the Jonveau Reserve, the land lay in an area called Bourbonnais Grove. Durham opened 20 acres for cultivation in January 1836. Parts of Cook and Iroquois counties became Will County, and Durham's Farm became park of the Rock Village Precinct. Durham was elected precinct commissioner. He petitioned to have the Bourbonnais Trace (now IL Route 102) made a state road. Durham became Bourbonnais Grove's postmaster in 1849 and remained so until Kankakee County was formed in 1853. He died in 1854, was buried on this site, and left the farm to his sons. David Perry came to Bourbonnais Grove in 1840, built a mill and married Durham's daughter, Martha. He bought the farm from Durham's sons in 1866. When he died in 1847, his son Alvah inherited the farm. A tenant farmer maintained the land while Alvah and his family lived in Wilmette. They spent summers and holidays at the farmhouse. Alvah died in 1899. Lomira Alvah Perry -- a University of Chicago graduate, Kankakee High School's Dean of Girls, and the last living daughter of Alvah -- died in 1961. She left the farm in trust to the State of Illinois. She hoped some part of it could be made a park. In 1986, the State awarded the farm to the Bourbonnais Township Park District. Erected by the The Bourbonnais Township Park District and the The Illinois State Historical Society, Dedicated 2004.|
|Kankakee||Hubbard Trail||The marker is located in Momence at the junction of IL 1 and IL 17.||41° 09.481||-087° 40.109||11/18/1953||The Illinois State Historical Society||This trail was blazed by Gurdon S. Hubbard, 1822-1824, connecting the trading posts of the American Fur Company between Vincennes and Chicago. Momence, near the upper crossing of the Kankakee River, is on this trail. Known also as the Vincennes Trace, it is perpetuated today as State Highway No. 1.|
|Kendall||Northern Boundary, The||The marker is located 1-3/4 miles west of Plano on the south side of US 34.||4/7/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society The northern boundary of Illinois as prescribed in the Ordinance of 1787 was an east and west line from the southern tip of Lake Michigan at approximately 41 degrees, 37 minutes passing through this region to the Mississippi River. When Illinois applied for admission into the Union the bill included this boundary. While the measure was still pending in the House, Nathaniel Pope, the Illinois delegate in Congress, felt the necessity of giving Illinois a firm footing on the lake thus committing her interest to northern commerce through the lakes to off-set the influence of the southern trade on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in case of future internal conflict. Pope felt that the territorial addition would, 'afford additional security to the perpetuity of the Union, inasmuch as the State would thereby be connected with the states of Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, through the Lakes.' The amendment introduced by Pope making the boundary 42 degrees, 30 minutes, passed easily and the Enabling Act was approved on April 18, 1818. Illinois gained approximately 61 miles of added territory including 14 counties covering 8500 square miles of fertile soil, lake and river ports, and such future prosperous cities as Chicago, Rockford, Freeport, and Galena. Politically, this additional northern territory decisively influenced Illinois in favor of national unity and against slavery during the Civil War period and was important in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Thus Pope's foresight had national repercussions as well as significance for Illinois.||The northern boundary of Illinois as prescribed in the Ordinance of 1787 was an east and west line from the southern tip of Lake Michigan at approximately 41 degrees, 37 minutes passing through this region to the Mississippi River. When Illinois applied for admission into the Union the bill included this boundary. While the measure was still pending in the House, Nathaniel Pope, the Illinois delegate in Congress, felt the necessity of giving Illinois a firm footing on the lake thus committing her interest to northern commerce through the lakes to off-set the influence of the southern trade on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in case of future internal conflict. Pope felt that the territorial addition would, 'afford additional security to the perpetuity of the Union, inasmuch as the State would thereby be connected with the states of Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, through the Lakes.' The amendment introduced by Pope making the boundary 42 degrees, 30 minutes, passed easily and the Enabling Act was approved on April 18, 1818. Illinois gained approximately 61 miles of added territory including 14 counties covering 8500 square miles of fertile soil, lake and river ports, and such future prosperous cities as Chicago, Rockford, Freeport, and Galena. Politically, this additional northern territory decisively influenced Illinois in favor of national unity and against slavery during the Civil War period and was important in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Thus Pope's foresight had national repercussions as well as significance for Illinois.|
|Knox||Carl Sandburg Birthplace||The marker is located in Galesburg at 331 East Third Street, which is just east of the Railroad Yards and west of Seminary Street.||40° 56.164||-090° 21.946||1972||The Illinois State Historical Society||Carl Sandburg, poet and historian, was born in this modest three-room cottage on January 6, 1878. He was the son of a Swedish immigrant railroad worker. Carl attended Lombard college in Galesburg, and his first poetry was published in this town. He later became a journalist and prolific author. His Complete Poems and a biography, Abraham Lincoln: The War years, won Pulitzer prizes. He also wrote a novel, an autobiography, children's stories, and folksongs. After his death in 1967, his ashes were buried beneath Remembrance Rock behind his birthplace.|
|Knox||Fraker's Grove||The marker is located oin the south side of IL Route 17, two miles west of La Fayette, immediately west of the Stark-Knox County line.||41° 06.333||-090° 00.238||5/31/1964||Descendants of Michael Fraker and The Illinois State Historical Society||In this area stood a Potawatomi Village when Michael Fraker arrived from Kentucky about 1830. With kindness and understanding he negotiated a peaceful settlement with the Indians and became the first permanent settler in northeastern Knox County. His grave is about one-half mile south of this point.|
|Knox||Galesburg, Illinois||The marker is located 10 miles southeast of Galesburg in a turnout on the north side of US 150.||3/1/1968||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1834, George Washington Gale, Presbyterian minister of Whitesboro, New York, evolved a plan to form a community and manual labor college in the Midwest to train missionaries. His original plan was to purchase a township of Government land at $1.25 an acre, sell it at $5 an acre, and apply the profits to an endowment for the college and community. In 1835, a committee of his followers picked the site. In the next two years settlers established Log City, a temporary town, and built Galesburg nearby. It was incorporated in 1841 and obtained the county seat from Knoxville in 1873. Knox College, chartered in 1837, began holding classes in 1838. Knox was strongly influenced by its religious origins but it gradually broadened its educational objectives. In 1930 Knox absorbed Lombard College founded by the Universalists in 1851 as Illinois Liberal Institute. Galesburg was a center of temperance and anti-slavery movements for many years and it was an important station on the Underground Railroad before the Civil War. On October 7, 1858, the fifth Lincoln-Douglas Debate was held on Knox Campus at 'Old main' which was named a National Historic Landmark in 1936. Galesburg is the birthplace of Carl Sandburg, noted poet and Lincoln biographer. His parents were part of a large influx of Swedish immigrants who settled in Galesburg in the 1850's.|
|Knox||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||This is one of three identical markers. It is located north of Galesburg on US 150.||1958||Debate Centennial Commision of Galesburg and The Illinois State Historical Society||On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'|
|Knox||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||This is one of three identical markers. It is located southwest of Gaelsburg on IL 41.||1958||Debate Centennial Commision of Galesburg and The Illinois State Historical Society||On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'|
|Knox||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||This is one of three identical markers. It is located west of Galesburg on US 34.||1958||Debate Centennial Commision of Galesburg and The Illinois State Historical Society||On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus Lincoln said, 'He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to hold them.'|
|Knox County, Indiana||Vincennes in the American Revolution||The marker is located in Vincennes, IN on the grounds of the George Rogers Clark Memorial which is located near the banks of the Wabash River and southwest of the US 50 Bridge over the river.||38° 40.827||-087° 31.998||1976||Illinois Bicentennial Commission, The Illinois State Historical Society, Indiana St. Historical Society||After taking the Kaskaskia on July 5, 1778, George Rogers Clark, acting under Virginia authority, sent Father Pierre Gibault to Vincennes as his envoy. Gibault convinced the villagers there to take an oath of loyalty to the Americans. In early August, Captain Leonard Helm arrived to take commmand of Fort Sackville. On December 17, British forces under Colonel Henry Hamilton recaptured the fort. Clark, with some 160 men, reached Vincennes on February 23, 1779, after an eighteen day march through flooded country. The move caught Hamilton by surprise. Two days later he surrendered. The Fort, renamed Patrick Henry, remained in American hands.|
|Lake||Adlai Ewing Stevenson II, 1900-1965||The marker is located in Mettawa, .8 miles south of IL 60 and St. Mary's Road.||1984||Village of Mettawa and The Illinois State Historical Society||Adlai Ewing Stevenson - Governor of Illinois from 1948 to 1952, twice the Democratic Party Nominee for President, and United States Ambassador to the United Nations - built this residence in 1938. Known as 'The Farm,' the house, outbuildings, and surrounding meadows and woods comprise seventy acres. Throughout his career of public service, Stevenson often returned to The Farm for rest and inspiration. The property is now owned by the Lake County Forest Preserve District.|
|Lake||Andrew C. Cook House||The marker is located in Wauconda.||1992||Wauconda Lions Club, Wauconda Township Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1840, Andrew C. Cook and his wife Mary Oakes came to Wauconda Township from Vermont via the Erie Canal, the Great Lakes to Chicago and then to Wauconda. They purchased 380 acres of land at $1.25 per acre. A log cabin was erected before clearing the land. Early in 1850 he began construction on this rural Greek Revival style farmhouse, making the bricks from the clay and limestone of the nearby area. The house was built in three stages. As seen by the three colors of brick fired at different temperatures and times in his kiln. He was a Stalwart Republican in Lake County politics, holding many offices including township supervisor. The first township meeting was held in this house.|
|Lake||Dwyer Settlement In Lake County, Illinois, The||The marker is located near the northwest corner of Washington Avenue and Green Bay Road on Lake Bluff School District #65 property.||42° 16.958||-087° 51.274||3/1/2009||Vliet Center for Lake Bluff History and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1837, William Dwyer, his wife Mary, and Mary's brother, Dr. Richard Murphy, a physician, established a claim to the property on this site and created what was known as the Dwyer settlement. The Dwyer's Homestead included a tavern and one of the five stage stops along the Green Bay Trail in Lake County. It became known as the center of social activity: nurturing political, intellectual, and religious ties in the newly settled area. The Dwyer Settlement was the site of St. Ann's Church and Cemetery (1844), the first Catholic Parish in the area. William Dwyer served as the first road supervisor for this portion of Green Bay Road and served as a tax collector. Dr. Murphy was appointed first magistrate for the area and, as deputy to the federal marshal, recorded the Lake County Census for 1840. Murphy served for six years (1839-'45) in the Illinois State Legislature, drafting the first Illinois Public School Law, and acting as chair of the State Finance Committee. Dwyer and Dr. Murphy were instrumental in the 1839 formation of Lake County through the division of McHenry County, also in moving the county seat from Libertyville to Waukegan. The Dwyer's Tavern was the first polling place in the area and the site of the first shield township meeting on April 2, 1952. The Dwyer Settlement gave a permanent character to this area and from it grew the community now known as Lake Bluff.|
|Lake||Fort Sheridan||42° 13.007||-087° 48.968||1997||Fort Sheridan Historic Preservation Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This U.S. Army Post was named after Civil War Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, to honor his many services to Chicago. The Commercial Club of Chicago, concerned since 1877 with the need for a military garrison, was motivated by the Haymarket Riot in 1886 to arrange for the donation of 632 acres of land to the Federal Government for this purpose. Troops arrived in November 1887 and were used in 1894 to quell labor unrest during the Pullman strike. Fort Sheridan became a mobilization, training, and administrative center beginning with the Spanish American War in 1898. During World War II, over 500,000 men and women were processed through military service here. Many Army officers who later became famous lived here, including George Patton and Jonathon Wainwright. The 94 Historic District buildings, built 1889-1910, include 64 structures that were the first major works of architects William Holabird and Martin Roche of Chicago. These earliest buildings are made of bricks molded and fired on site, using clay mined form lakefront bluffs. The water tower, originally the tallest structure in the Chicago area, was altered and shortened by 60 feet in 1940. The row of buildings flanking the tower were troop barracks. The 110-acre Historic District, placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1984. Fort Sheridan closed in 1993.|
|Lake||Joseph T. Bowen Country Club||The marker is located in Waukegan at the Joseph T. Bowen Country Club on Sheridan road.||8/13/1989||Waukegan Historical Society, the Waukegan Park District, and The Illinois State Historical Society||From 1912 to 1962, Bowen Park was the site of the Joseph T. Bowen Country Club, owned by the Hull-House Association of Chicago. Here, children from many national, racial and religious backgrounds learned to respect each other and the environment. Bowen Park's natural environment also provided children of Chicago's hard streets an atmosphere never before experienced. Bowen Country Club influenced over 40,000 people and helped further the ideals of Nobel Peace Prize winner, Jane Addams, and Louise DeKoven Bowen. On this site the club achieved its motto, 'secure from the slow strain of the world's contagion.'|
|Lake||Rondout Train Robbery, The||The marker is located on the north side of Illinois Route 176, just east of the tollroad.||42° 16.807||-087° 53.862||10/4/1981||Libertyville-Mundelein Historical Society, The Lake County Museum Association and The Illinois State Historical Society||On June 12, 1924, the largest train robberies in U.S. history occurred near here. Bandits who boarded the train in Chicago forced postal clerks to surrender sacks containing more than two million dollars in securities and cash.
Local police apprehended the gunman within a few days. The U.S. Postal Inspection Service investigated the case and identified the masterminds, one of whom was a trusted employee of the postal service. Some of the loot was never recovered.
In all, eight men were convicted in federal court and sentenced within seven months of the robbery.
|Lake||Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company||North Chicago Center for the Arts, Inc. and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company of Worcester, MA., established a wire mill - the Waukegan Works - east of this location along Lake Michigan. The land for its Illinois operation was purchased January 16, 1891, on the recommendation of its advisers: Philip W. Moen, Charles G. Washburn, Fred H. Daniels, and Edwin Lenox and included much of the Elisha Wadsworth estate. In March 1891, on forty acres, construction of the mill complex was started. By September, a galvanizing operation began. In November, the company's subdivision, the Waukegan Highlands, was platted west of the mill. The first wire was drawn in December. In 1892, the Company, a principal manufacturer of Glidden Barbed wire, introduced Waukegan Barbed Wire, invented by John D. Curtis. The establishment of the plant led both an industrial and population boom. Workers from Worcester and immigrants from Finland, Sweden, and Eastern Europe moved to the Washburn and Moen subdivision. Slovenian workers called the area the "Kompanija"- the Company District. First named South Waukegan, the community that rapidly developed near the mill was later incorporated as North Chicago. The American Steel and Wire Company, which later became a part of the United States Steel Corporation, acquired the mill in 1899. By the 1950s, the plant had become one of Lake County's largest employers. In 1979, the mill was closed for economic reasons.|
|Lake||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located 400 feet south of the Wisconsin state line on the west side of IL 45.||9/14/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Lake County lies at the extreme Northeast corner of the state. It derives its name form being situated on Lake Michigan, as well as from the great number of lakes within. The land that comprises Lake County was acquired by the United States government by treaty with the Potawatomie and other Indians at Prairie Du Chein in August of 1829. The first white settler of Lake County was Captain Daniel Wright in 1834. The Potawatomie Indians helped him build the first house, which was north of Dutch man's Point in Vernon Township. The following year Hiram Dennicott arrived, and between the two families a settlement was established. Illinois acquired the fourteen northern counties, including the lead mine region around Galena and the site of Chicago, because of the foresight of Nathaniel Pope, Congressional delegate from the Illinois Territory. His amendment to the statehood act moved the upper boundary from an east - west line through the tip of Lake Michigan to the present location. Within this region, US 45 crosses the Des Plaines River which Joliet and Marquette followed in 1673. Between Kankakee and Effingham, US 45 parallels the Illinois Central, the first federal land grant railroad in the United States, and passes through the Lincoln country near Mattoon. In southern Illinois this highway passes Fort Massac State Park, a site which the French fortified extensively in 1757. George Rogers Clark entered the Illinois country near it on his way to capture Kaskaskia.|
|LaSalle||Benjamin Lundy, 1789-1839||The marker was located on IL 178, eight miles south of I-80, in a small park across from the Vermilion River. It is currently missing.||7/11/1954||State of Illinois||Quaker newspaper editor of the abolitionist 'Genius of Universal Emancipation' printed at Hennepin then Lowell, four miles south, November 8, 1838 to August 22, 1839. He had published it since 1821 in Ohio, Tennessee, Baltimore, Washington, D. C. and Philadelphia. Lundy is buried in Friends Cemetery near McNabb.|
|LaSalle||Buffalo Rock State Park||South side US 6, 4 miles east of IL 178||1952||The Illinois State Historical Society||One mile south was the probable site of Fort Ottawa. It was erected in 1760-61 by Captain Passerat De La Chapelle and his French soldiers retreating from Canada to New Orleans to avoid surrender to the British.|
|LaSalle||Canal Warehouse||The marker is located in Utica, on the southeast corner of East Canal Street and Mill Street, on the grounds of the LaSalle County Historical Society Museum.||41° 20.428||-089° 00.558||1973||LaSalle County Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||This stone building was a warehouse on the Illinois and Michigan Canal. It was built by James Clark, a resident of Utica, one year after the canal was completed in 1848. Before the advent of the railroads the canal was the main commercial artery to Chicago. It helped establish Chicago as an important grain market and contributed greatly to the growth of that city and the northern part of the Illinois River Valley. Clark had also constructed five sections of the canal. He operated a general store in his warehouse, which shipped an average of 210,000 bushels of corn and 22,000 bushels of oats per year. It is the only surviving warehouse on canal frontage.|
|LaSalle||Clyde William Tombaugh||The marker is located in Streator, in front of City Hall, facing east toward Bloomington Street.||41° 07.132||-088° 50.160||1985||Streatorland Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Clyde William Tombaugh was born in Streator in 1906. As a young boy he was very interested in the universe and built his own telescope. He moved to Kansas to study astronomy at the state university. He became an assistant at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona at the age of 23. A year later in 1930, while working from reckonings made by Percival Lowell in 1914, Tombaugh discovered the most distant planet in our solar system, which he named Pluto.|
|LaSalle||First Permanent Norwegian Settlement in the United States||The marker is located southwest of the town of Norway, along the northwest side of IL 71. It is mounted on granite at the Cleng-Pearson Memorial Park.||41° 27.442||-088° 40.421||1934||State of Illinois||Here is commemorated the 100th anniversary of the first permanent Norwegian settlement in the United States by Cleng Peerson and other pioneers from Norway. They and their descendants, who still live here have contributed largely to the development of this section of Illinois.|
|LaSalle||Fort Johnston||The marker is located in Ottawa at the Junction of IL 71 and IL 23.||1934||State of Illinois||On the eminence to the east stood Fort Johnston, headquarters of Gen. Henry Atkinson during part of the Black hawk War. Here, May 27, 1832, Abraham Lincoln enlisted as a private in Elijah Iles' company - his second enlistment of the war.|
|LaSalle||Fort Wilbourn||The marker is located on IL Route 351, southwest of LaSalle, 100 yards south of the Illinois River Bridge, on the southeast corner of the intersection of Orlando Smith Road and IL Route 351.||41° 18.689||-089° 05.284||1934||State of Illinois||On the eminence to the southwest, stood Fort Wilbourn, where the Third Army of Illinois Volunteers was mustered in for service in the Black Hawk War. Here on June 16, 1832 Abraham Lincoln enlisted as a Private in Jacob M. Early's Company, his third enlistment of the war.|
|LaSalle||Great Illinois Village, The||The marker is located in Ottawa on IL 23 where it crosses the canal.||1935||State of Illinois||South of here the Great Village of the Illinois extended for three miles along the north side of the Illinois River. To this historic Indian town came LaSalle, Tonti, Marquette, Allouez and other explorers and missionaries. Here, in September, 1680 the Iroquois attacked the Indians, dispersed them and destroyed their village.|
|LaSalle||Illinois and Michigan Canal||The marker is located in Ottawa, on the south bank of the canal. It is midway between Illinois Street (IL Route 23) and LaSalle Street.||41° 21.173||-088° 50.527||1935||State of Illinois||This historic artery of travel was commenced in 1836 and finished in 1848. By carrying pioneers and their produce between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Valley, it figured largely in the development of Northern Illinois. Superseded by the Deep Waterway after fifty years of use, it is now devoted to recreational purposes.|
|LaSalle||Indian Creek Massacre||The marker is located on the west side of IL 23, 3.8 miles north of its intersection with IL Route 52. It is 100 yards south of the Shabbona Park Road (County Road N42).||41° 32.601||-088° 49.008||1934||State of Illinois||On May 20, 1832, hostile Indians, mainly Potawatomi, massacred fifteen men, women and children of the Indian Creek settlement two miles to the west. Two girls, Rachel and Sylvia Hall, were carried into captivity and later ransomed. All had disregarded the warning of Shabbona, the white man's friend.|
|LaSalle||John Huston Finley, 1863-1940, Educator*Editor*Author||The marker is located in Grand Ridge on the grounds of the Grand Ridge Elementary School, 400 W. Main Street. It is at the intersection of Il. Rt. 23 and North 21st Street (Main Street).||41° 14.243||-088° 50.175||10/1/2004||Citizens of Grand Ridge and the Illinois State Historical Society, with support from the Walgreen Company||John Huston Finley was born on a farm east of Grand Ridge and attended Grand Ridge Elementary School. He graduated from Ottawa High School as valedictorian in 1882, and earned his undergraduate degree at Knox College in 1887, He went on to John Hopkin's University for graduate school and, at age 29, returned to Knox College as its president, serving in that post through 1899. In 1900 he accepted the newly established chair of politics at Princeton University. In 1903, he became president of City College of New York, and in 1913 was appointed Commissioner of Education of New York State. While on leave from that position, he headed a Red Cross delegation to Palestine in 1818 -1819. In 1921 Mr. Finley became associate editor of the New York Times and rose to editor in chief in 1937. He was an accomplished speaker and presented many addresses at colleges in America and abroad. He was widely published in journals of the day and wrote eight books, including A Pilgrimage in Palestine and The French in the Heart of America. He received 32 honorary degrees, He and his wife, Martha Boyden of Sheffield, Illinois, had four children. Mr. Finley is buried at Princeton Cemetery in New Jersey. His parents are buried in Grand Ridge Cemetery.|
|LaSalle||LaSalle-Peru, Illinois||This is one of two identical markers. It is located south of LaSalle on the west side US Business 51.||41° 19.978||-089° 58.626||4/26/1968||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The story of the twin cities of LaSalle and Peru is closely interwoven with the history of the Illinois River and the Illinois and Michigan Canal. In 1673 Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet passed through this area by way of the Illinois River enroute to Lake Michigan. The explorer Robert Cavalier, Sieur de LaSalle, also came through here in 1680 and, in 1682-83, his lieutenant Henri de Tonti erected Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock to the east, now a state park. Jolliet first noted the desirability of a canal connecting lake Michigan to the Mississippi via Illinois. In 1825 the Illinois and Michigan Canal Association was incorporated and in 1836 the Internal Improvements Act which included provision for a north-south railroad through Illinois was passed by the legislature. The convergence of these important transportation facilities in this area encouraged further settlement. Peru, organized in 1834, was incorporated in 1838. Activity eventually shifted to LaSalle, since the boat basin of the canal and the railroad routes were finally located there. Settled as early as 1830, LaSalle was not incorporated until 1852. Construction on the canal was begun in 1836 and completed in 1848. It extended from the Chicago River to LaSalle-Peru and was an important trade link for thirty years. Two railroads, completed to LaSalle in the 1850's, eventually replaced the canal in importance, and the emphasis in the twin cities gradually shifted from transportation to mining and industry.|
|LaSalle||LaSalle-Peru, Illinois||This is one of two identical markers. It is located on US 6, south of St. Bede Academy.||4/26/1968||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The story of the twin cities of LaSalle and Peru is closely interwoven with the history of the Illinois River and the Illinois and Michigan Canal. In 1673 Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet passed through this area by way of the Illinois River enroute to Lake Michigan. The explorer Robert Cavalier, Sieur de LaSalle, also came through here in 1680 and, in 1682-83, his lieutenant Henri de Tonti erected Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock to the east, now a state park. Jolliet first noted the desirability of a canal connecting lake Michigan to the Mississippi via Illinois. In 1825 the Illinois and Michigan Canal Association was incorporated and in 1836 the Internal Improvements Act which included provision for a north-south railroad through Illinois was passed by the legislature. The convergence of these important transportation facilities in this area encouraged further settlement. Peru, organized in 1834, was incorporated in 1838. Activity eventually shifted to LaSalle, since the boat basin of the canal and the railroad routes were finally located there. Settled as early as 1830, LaSalle was not incorporated until 1852. Construction on the canal was begun in 1836 and completed in 1848. It extended from the Chicago River to LaSalle-Peru and was an important trade link for thirty years. Two railroads, completed to LaSalle in the 1850's, eventually replaced the canal in importance, and the emphasis in the twin cities gradually shifted from transportation to mining and industry.|
|LaSalle||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||This marker replaces an older marker located on the same site. It is located in Ottawa on the west side of IL. Rt. 23, (Columbus Street) between Jackson and Lafayette in the City Park.||41° 20.963||-088° 50.469||3/13/1936||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||On August 21, 1858, the first of the famous joint debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas was held in this park. At this site 10,000 people heard the two candidates for the United States Senate discuss the question of slavery. Lincoln rebuffed attempts to paint him as an abolitionist, one opposing the immediate end to slavery. Lincoln maintained that slavery was morally wrong. Douglas, however, refused to address the morality of slavery. He insisted that the people in the individual states should be left to decide the question. Slavery remained an issue throughout the campaign.|
|LaSalle||Railroads and the Founding of Mendota||The marker is located in Mendota, and is mounted on a large boulder near the intersection of 8th Street and Main Street near the Burlington-Northern Railroad and the Amtrak Station.||41° 32.990||-089° 07.065||6/1/2002||Erected by the Mendota Museum and Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||In 1853 two railroads met near this spot and the community of Mendota was born. Mendota is an Indian word said to mean "crossing of the trails." The Chicago & Aurora Railroad planned to expand southwest from Aurora to meet the Illinois Central Railroad. Meanwhile, the IC was building northward up the middle of the state. Its charter called for its main line to proceed northward from Cairo to the western end of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at LaSalle. From there it was to turn northwest toward the Galena mining district. During a chance meeting of several railroad officers in early 1852 in Boston, the lines agreed to have the C&A and the Central Military Tract Railroad, which would connect Mendota and Galesburg, meet the Illinois Central at the point closest to Aurora. In June of that year, the Illinois legislature authorized extension of the C&A "to a point not less than 15 miles north" of the canal. Thus the curve of the IC toward Galena was moved to a point just north of this marker. In 1856 the C&A and the Central Military Tract Railroads merged and became the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. That line, through recent mergers, has become the Burlington Northern Santa Fe. The Illinois Central, meanwhile, abandoned its line through Mendota in 1985.|
|LaSalle||Starved Rock||The marker is located in Starved Rock State Park.||1934||The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the site of Fort St. Louis, erected by the French traders LaSalle and Tonti in 1682. For the following ten years Fort St. Louis was the center of French influence in Illinois. According to tradition, a band of Illinois Indians was beseiged here in 1769 by northern tribes seeking to avenge the murder of the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. Stranded on the Rock and unable to secure provisions, the Illinois band died of starvation. The site became known as Starved Rock from that legend.|
|Lawrence||George Field Army Air Corps Base, 1942-1946||The marker is located four miles northeast of Lawrenceville, at the intersection of County Roads 1200 North and 1570 East, at the entrance to the Lawrenceville Airport (Mid-American Air Center).||38° 44.859||-087° 37.066||9/10/1999||George Field Association and The Illinois State Historical Society||America at war in 1942 needed new bases to complete the training of its Army Air Corps cadets before they joined combat groups overseas. "Allison Prairie" in Lawrence County, Illinois, provided ideal conditions for a field due to its size and varied weather patterns. On April 16, 1942, the War Department announced the selection and began construction in June. On August 10, Colonel George W. Mundy officially took command of the 2,836 acre complex then named George in honor of the late Brigadier General Harold "Pursuit" George.|
|Lawrence||Lincoln in Lawrenceville||The marker is located in Lawrenceville, on the north side of the Courthouse Square, facing US Route 50, between 11th Street and 12th Street.||38° 43.759||-087° 40.948||1970||Lawrence County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1840 Abraham Lincoln, as a Whig elector, campaigned in Southern Illinois for William Henry Harrison, Whig Presidential Candidate. Here in Lawrenceville, on October 28, he had a dispute with a local physician, William G. Anderson, who the previous August had run as a Democrat and lost the election for State Representative. In writing to Lincoln on October 30, Dr. Anderson said that Liincoln was the 'aggressor' in the dispute and that his 'words imported insult.' Lincoln denied the charge, saying that he regretted the incident.|
|Lawrence||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located near Vincennes, Indiana on the west side of Illinois 33, 3.5 miles northwest of the Ohio River Bridge.||2/1/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. On Dubois Hill nearby, an advanced prehistoric Indian group, the Riverton Culture, had a settlement from 1500 to 1000 B.C. They lived in semi-permanent settlements here and at two other known sites ten and twenty miles to the north on the Wabash River. They stayed in the settlements during bad weather and stored crops which they had raised here. Toussaint Dubois settled on the hill about 1807. He was a well-known fur trader in partnership with Pierre Menard, first Illinois Lieutenant Governor, and owned some 4500 acres of land including the site of Lawrenceville. His son, Jesse K. Dubois, was a prominent office holder and was State Auditor from 1857 to 1864. Jesse K. was a close personal friend of Abraham Lincoln from 1834 until Lincoln's death. Lincoln campaigned in this area in 1856 upon his invitation.|
|Lawrence||To Victory, February 25, 1779||The marker was located on US 50 at rhe Vincennes Bridge. It is currently missing.||38° 35.489||-087° 39.212||8/31/1935||State of Illinois||From the Wabash River to the Sangamon five miles west of Decatur, the Lincoln National Memorial Highway follows substantially the route taken by the Lincoln family in their migration from Indiana to Illinois in the spring of 1830.|
|Lawrence||Vincennes Tract||The marker is located at the Red Hills State Park, on the north side of US Route 50, halfway between the east entrance and the west entrance.||38° 44.017||-087° 50.204||1973||Lawrence County Historical Society||The western boundary of the Vincennes Tract passed through this point. The line extended south-southwest thirty-nine miles from present-day Crawford through Lawrence, Wabash, and Edwards Counties in Illinois. The Vincennes Tract was seventy-two miles wide. About six-sevenths of it lay in Indiana. The Illinois portion was the first parcel of land in the Illinois country ceded by Indians. The land was ceded in the Treaty of Greenville, August 5, 1795, and confirmed in a treaty at Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803. Acting for the United States, William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory, negotiated the 1803 treaty with the Delaware, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Miami, Eel River, Wea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia tribes. Illinois was then a part of Indiana Territory.|
|Lee||Abraham Lincoln||The marker is located in Dixon on the north shore of the Rock River. It is just downstream, to the west, of the US 52 and IL 26 bridge over the river.||41° 50.784||-089° 29.060||1930||State of Illinois||Was stationed here during the Black Hawk War in 1832, as captain of volunteers. On April 21, 1832, he enlisted at Richland Creek, Sangamon County, and was elected captain. He was mustered into state service at Beardstown on April 22 and into United States service at the mouth of Rock River May 3. At the mouth of Fox River on May 27, he was mustered out and on the same day re-enlisted as a private in Captain Elijah Iles' Company. At the expiration of this enlistment, he re-enlisted on June 16, at Fort Wilbourn in Captain Jacob M. Early's Company, and was finally mustered out of service on July 10, 1832, at White Water River, Wisconsin.|
|Lee||Dixon, Illinois||The marker is located 3.5 miles west of Dixon in the rest area on the south side of IL 2 (US Alt. 30).||2/1/1968||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1828 Joseph Ogee established a ferry across the Rock River where Dixon now stands. In 1830, John Dixon, postmaster, moved to the site with his family to operate the ferry which had prospered because of its location on the trail between the Galena lead mines and Peoria. The name of the small settlement was soon changed from Ogee's Ferry to Dixon's Ferry. John Dixon --'Father Dixon' to the settlers and 'Nachusa' (white haired) to the Indians -- was a community leader until his death on July 8, 1876. Dixon became the county seat in 1839 and is today a thriving community. At the beginning of the Black Hawk War in 1832 a small fort was built on the north bank of the river. Among the men of future prominence who served here Abraham Lincoln and Zachary Taylor, U.S. Presidents; Winfield Scott, presidential nominee and famous soldier; Robert Anderson; Albert Sidney Johnston and Joseph E. Johnston, Civil War generals; William S. Hamilton, son of Alexander; Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy; and John Reynolds, Illinois governor. The statue, 'Lincoln, the Soldier, 'by Leonard Grunelle stands on the site of Fort Dixon. In 1837 Alexander Charters obtained a tract of land three miles north of Dixon's Ferry. He named his estate Hazelwood and entertained such notables as William Cullen Bryant, Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and General Philip Kearney. Charles Walgreen who lived in Dixon as a youth and later founded the Walgreens drugstores, purchased Hazelwood in 1929.|
|Lee||Homes of Chief Waubonsee and Madeline Ogee||The marker is located in Paw Paw, in the southeast part of town, at the intersection of Chapman Street and Wheeler Street. It is mounted directly in front of the Trestle Creek County Club.||41° 41.135||-088° 58.724||1986||Paw Paw Endowment Corporation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Deep within the Paw Paw Grove, or As-Sim-In-Eh-Kon, Potawatomi Chief Waubonsie and his tribe made their home 1824-1836. At the Treaty of Prairie Du Chien 1829, Madeline Ogee, Potawatomi wife of Joseph Ogee, was granted two sections of land in the granted two sections of land in the grove. Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa Chiefs, Waubonsie, Shabbona, and Sauganash (Billy Caldwell) aided the U.S. Government during the Black Hawk War. At the Treaty of Chicago, 1833, the Potawatomi Confederation ceded approximatley 5 million acres of land in northwest Illinois to the government. In 1836 the Indians were removed from their homes to northwest Missouri and southwest Iowa. The Ogee section was sold to David town for $1,000 in silver.|
|Lee||Lincoln in the Black Hawk War||The marker is located east of Dixon, on Franklin Grove Road, directly to the east of the south entrance to Oakwood Cemetery, off of IL Route 38, and directly to the west of Immanuel Lutheran Church.||41° 50.267||-089° 28.114||1953||State of Illinois||On May 12, 1832 Captain Abraham Lincoln's company of Illinois volunteers camped one mile west. Lincoln re-enlisted in two other companies and was frequently in Dixon. Discharged from service near Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on July 10, Lincoln passed through Dixon enroute to New Salem.|
|Lee||Mormons in Amboy||The marker is located in Amboy, mounted on the west side of the Track Side East Tavern (the original Goldman's Hall), across from the old Illinois Central Depot, on the east side of East Avenue, just north of Main Street.||41° 42.833||-089° 19.885||6/15/1974||Lee County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was established in 1852 in southern Wisconsin. On April 6, 1860, Joseph Smith II, son of the Morman founder, was ordained President-Prophet of the Reorganized Church. The ceremony was held at Goldman's Hall, which stood on this site at Amboy. A Mormon congregation had been organized here about 1840. Smith headed the Reorganized Church unitl death in 1914. Church Headquarters was founded at Plano, Illinois in 1866, moved to Lamoni, Iowa, in 1881 and to Independence, Missouri, in 1921.|
|Lee||Old Chicago Trail||The marker is located in Paw Paw, in Rogers Park, adjacent to the old Chicago Trail Road. (The town of Paw-Paw is on a county road, east of Interstate 39, Exit 82.)||41° 41.386||-088° 59.229||1986||State Bank of Paw Paw and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Old Chicago Trail extended from Fort Dearborn to Galena. A government mail route was established along this Indian trail in 1829. The Potawatomi ceded their territory to the government in 1833. This route became the first East-West stagecoach trail across Northern Illinois. Paw Paw Grove, one of the first settlements along the route, was a midway haven between Chicago and Galena. It was over this trail Poetess Margaret Fuller traveled in 1843, she wrote: 'We traveled the blooming plain unmarked by any road, only the friendly track of the wheels which beat, not broke the grass. Our stations were not from town to town, but from grove to grove.'|
|Livingston||Cardiff||The marker is located at the site of the former town of Cardiff in northeast Livingston County, 7.3 miles southeast of Dwight, Illinois. It is northeast of the town of Campus, at the intersection of County Roads 2900 North and 3400 East.||41° 02.675||-088° 18.414||8/1/2007||The Herscher Area Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||The village of Cardiff was built on this site in 1899, after the discovery of underground coal deposits. A mine was sunk and a relatively large town developed within months. The town, originally known as North Campus, incorporated as the village of Cardiff in May 1900. A series of mine explosions from March 12 - 16, 1903, killed nine mine workers. Three men remain entombed in the mine. A second mine was sunk to the west, and mining operations resumed. More than 2,000 people lived in Cardiff at its peak. Cardiff had a church, a school, two banks, two grain elevators, a semi-pro baseball team, a bottling plant, railroad passenger service, a hotel, numerous saloons, and other businesses. Prosperity continued for Cardiff until the high quality coal ran out and the Wabash Railroad, the mine's biggest customer, refused to buy Cardiff coal. The mine closed in 1912. A total of 18 men died in mine accidents in Cardiff. Almost as fast as the town developed, it disappeared. Houses and other buildings were dismantled or moved whole. Today, the town of Cardiff is gone, yet remains a legally incorporated village. Two large hills of waste from the mine are monuments to the people who lived, worked, and died here. Dozens of acres that had been homes, stores, yards, and streets have now gone back to farmland.|
|Livingston||Charters Hotel, The||The marker is located in Vandalia on the northeast corner of Fourth and Gallatin Streets.||40° 44.845||-088° 15.537||1954||The Illinois State Historical Society||John Charters operated a large tavern on this site from the late 1820's to November 1835. Under the name, 'Sign of the Green Tree,' it was operated by Thomas Redmond until 1838.|
|Livingston||Chatsworth Wreck: Midnight, August 10-11, 1887, The||The marker is located one mile east of Chatsworth on US 24, just west of the Ford-Livingston County Line. It is on the northwest corner of the intersection of US 24 and County Road 3500 N.||40° 44.857||-088° 15.614||1954||State of Illinois||One-half mile north on the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad occurred one of the worst wrecks in American rail history. An excursion train - two engines and approximately twenty wooden coaches - from Peoria to Niagara Falls, struck a burning culvert . Of the 500 passengers about 85 perished and scores were injured.|
|Logan||Abraham Lincoln and Lincoln Illinois||The marker is located in Lincoln, at the intersection of Broadway and Sangamon Street, on the southeast side of the tracks in the east corner of the grounds by the Amtrak Station.||40° 08.868||-089° 21.816||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||Near this site Abraham Lincoln christened the town with the juice of a watermelon when the first lots were sold on August 27, 1853. President-elect Lincoln spoke here, November 21, 1860, while traveling to Chicago and Lincoln's funeral train stopped here, May 3, 1865, before completing the trip to Springfield.|
|Logan||Atlanta Public Library-Museum||In front of Atlanta Public Library||40° 15.624||-089° 13.943||1983||Friends of Historic Atlanta, Altanta Rotary and Lions Clubs and the Logan County Tourism Committe||The Atlanta Public Library was founded in 1873 by public spirited citizens who realized the importance of books. In 1973, the museum was added for the purpose of preserving Atlanta's heritage. In 1979, this octagonal structure was listed on the National Register of Historical Places. Atlanta, founded in 1853 as Xenia, had Logan County's first bank in 1854. Abraham Lincoln traveled throughout this area and was well known by several of Atlanta's pioneer families. Lincoln attended the July 4, 1859 picnic at Turner's Grove on the southeast edge of Atlanta and was presented a gold-handled cane by Sylvester Strong. In 1860, the initial "wide-awake" group supportive of Lincoln's presidential bid was organized in Atlanta. Lincoln's friends fired thirty-three cannon rounds when they heard the news of his nomination|
|Logan||Deskins Tavern||The marker is located in Lincoln, at the intersection of 5th and Madison Streets, across from Postville Court House State Site.||40° 08.809||-089° 22.833||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions and Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site Dr. John Deskins erected a tavern in 1836. Abraham Lincoln, David Davis, and other lawyers frequently stayed overnight here while the Eighth Judicial Court was in session at the Postville Court House. The judge, lawyers, litigants, witnesses, jurors and prisoners often shared the same dining table.|
|Logan||Elkhart, Illinois||The marker is located on the east side of US 66 in the rest area on the northwest edge of Elkhart.||7/3/1963||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Elkhart City in Logan County is typical of the many Illinois villages whose growth was spurred by the arrival of the railroad. Founded by John Shockey in 1855, two years after the coming of the Alton and Sangamon Railroad, now the Gulf Mobile and Ohio, Elkhart was for many years one of the largest shipping points on this line. Southeast of the site, on Elkhart Hill, is the mansion 'Oglehurst,' home and buriel place of Richard J. Oglesby (1824-1899), three times elected Governor of Illinois (1864, 1872, 1884). Ten days following his second inauguration he was elected United States Senator by the Illinos Legislature and served in that capacity until 1879. Governor Oglesby moved to Elkhart in 1890, following his retirement from public life. Another prominent Elkhart resident was John Dean Gillett (1819-1883), one of the cattle kings of the prairies. A New Englander by birth, he came to Logan County in 1838. Through his skill in the raising and feed ing of cattle, his name became a byword for superior quality beef in both this country and in England. At the time of his death, Gillett's land holdings totaled more than 16,000 acres. Captain Adam H. Bogardus (1833-1913), wildfowl market hunter, conservationist and champion wingshot, made his home for many years in Elkhart. In 1878, he defeated Aubrey Coventry, English champion wingshot, 79 to 78. Returning to the United States, Bogardus toured with William 'Buffalo Bill' Cody's 'The Wild West.'|
|Logan||First Poem by Langston Hughes, The||The marker is located in Lincoln, in the 100 block of 8th Street.||40° 09.013||-089° 22.081||10/18/1998||Friends of Langston Hughes, Abraham Lincoln Tourism Bureau of Logan County, and The Illinois State Historical Society||This internationally known African-American author (1902-1967) acknowledges in his autobiography The Big Sea that he wrote his first poem while attending Central School here in Lincoln. Ethel Welch, his eighth grade teacher, asked him to write the graduation poem. With no experience, Hughes prepared an eight-verse piece to honor each of the school's eight instructors. And the poem was printed in the commencement program. He graduated in 1916 with a class of eighty students. Hughes, a native of Joplin, Missouri, who had grown up in Lawrence, Kansas, had come to Lincoln in 1915 to live with his mother and step-father. He attended high school in Cleveland, Ohio.
Hughes' prominence in American literature comes mainly from his poems and novels written during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. His subsequent poetry, short stories, and other works, which appeared in the Chicago Defender and the New York Post, assured his fame. His literary works celebrate the African-American experience in the United States and his many admirers have bestowed on him the title of Poet Laureate of Black America. One of his most famous poems follows:
Hold fast to dreams
For if dreams die
Life is a broken winged bird
That cannot fly.
Hold fast to dreams
For when dreams go
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.
|Logan||Lincoln College||The marker is in Lincoln on the north side of the 300 block of Keokuk Street.||40° 09.299||-089° 21.728||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||On Abraham Lincoln's last birthday, February 12, 1865, ground was broken for Lincoln University, now Lincoln College. The town proprietors, Robert B. Latham, John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox, donated the tract of land for the original campus, and named the school in honor of their friend, Abraham Lincoln.|
|Logan||Lincoln House, The||The marker is in Lincoln at the intersection of South Chicago Street and Broadway. It is mounted on the building at 501 Broadway.||40° 08.838||-089° 21.810||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site the town proprietors erected the original Lincoln House in 1854. Leonard Volk met Abraham Lincoln on the sidewalk in front of the hotel on July 16, 1858, and arranged to make Lincoln's life mask later.|
|Logan||Lincoln Public Library||40° 08.827||-089° 21.662||Lincoln Public Library Board,The Friends of the Library and The Logan County Tourism Committe||The Lincoln Public Library is a fine example of public neo-classical construction. This W.A. Otis structure was completed in 1903. A stained glass dome and oak woodwork highlight the interior. Major benefactors were Steven Foley who guided its construction, Isabel Nash who willed her home as the site, and the Carnegie Foundation. The Library's history typifies the combination of national wealth, grass roots initiative, and the cultural ideals which generated the free library movement and its goal of a free and educated American society. The Library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.|
|Logan||Logan County Circuit Court||The marker is located in Lincoln, on the Courthouse Lawn.||40° 08.769||-089° 21.729||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood two former Logan County Courthouses in which Abraham Lincoln practiced law from 1856 until elected President. During the March term, 1859, Lincoln substituted for David Davis as the presiding judge of the Logan County Circuit Court.|
|Logan||Mount Pulaski Court House||The marker is located in Mount Pulaski, on the north side of old courthouse, one block south of IL Route 121.||40° 00.556||-089° 17.092||1979||The Illinois Department of Conservation and the Illinois State Historical Society||Mount Pulaski served as the seat of Logan County from 1848 to 1853. The first county court was at Postville, now part of Lincoln, Illinois. In 1848, Logan County voters approved the removal of the court from Postville to Mount Pulaski. Local citizens raised $2,700 toward the construction of this building. Among those attending court here were Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, and David Davis. In 1853, the County Seat was moved by legislation to Lincoln. The Mount Pulaski Court House was then used as a school house, later as the City Hall, and, finally, as the Post Office. The State of Illinois acquired the building in 1936.|
|Logan||Niebuhr Family of Theologians||The marker is located in Lincoln, on the east side of John's United Church of Christ, at 8th Street and Maple Street, facing Maple Street.||40° 08.966||-089° 22.161||6/23/2001||Friends Committee of Logan County||The Niebuhr clan, the "Trapp Family of theology" as Time magazine once referred to them, moved to Lincoln, Illinois, in 1902. Reverend Gustav Niebuhr was pastor of St. John's Evangelic Church until his death in 1913. His son, Reinhold, followed briefly in his father's footsteps before moving on to Detroit and later Union Theological Seminary in New York, where he became a widely published author and theologian. Among the works credited to him are the "Serenity Prayer." Other Niebuhrs include H. Richard, who was president of Elmhurst College and later taught at Yale University; Richard R. Niehuhr, who taught at Harvard; and Hulda Niebuhr, who taught at Boston University and later at McCormick Seminary in Chicago.|
|Logan||Postville Court House Site||The marker is located in Lincoln at Fifth Street and Madison Street (US 66).||40° 08.828||-089° 22.794||1934||State of Illinois||From 1839 to 1848 the seat of Logan County was Postville, which centered on the courthouse located on this site. In this structure Abraham Lincoln, a member of the traveling bar of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, attended twice a year.|
|Logan||Postville Park||The marker is located in Lincoln on the south side of the 1300 block of 5th Street.||40° 08.801||-089° 23.008||3/1/1964||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1835 Russell Post, a Baltimore adventurer, laid out the town of Postville which became the first Logan County seat. The town square is now Postville Park. Here Abraham Lincoln and his friends played townball, a predecessor of baseball, threw the maul, a heavy wooden hammer, and pitched horseshoes.|
|Logan||Robert B. Latham Home||The marker is located in Lincoln, at the corner of Kickapoo Street and Delavan Street.||40° 08.905||-089° 21.626||3/1/1965||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions & Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood the home of Robert B. Latham who joined John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox to found the town of Lincoln in 1853. Abraham Lincoln, judges and lawyers of the Eighth Judicial Circuit were frequent guests at his home.|
|Logan||Stephen A. Douglas Speech||The marker is located in Lincoln, where Union Street, Decatur Street, and Sangamon Avenue all come together. It is one block northwest of the railroad tracks, across the street from Holy Family Catholic Church.||40° 08.759||-089° 22.063||3/1/1964||Lincoln Kiwanis, Lions and Rotary Clubs and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site during the senatorial campaign of 1858 Stephen A. Douglas spoke to a Democratic political rally in a circus tent on September 4th. Douglas' opponent for the Senate seat, Abraham Lincoln, was on the train from Bloomington to Springfield and stopped to hear the speech.|
|Logan||William Maxwell Boyhood Home||The marker is located in Lincoln, at 184 Ninth Street.||40° 09.107||-089° 22.256||8/4/2001||Friends of William Maxwell and the Illinois State Historical Society||William Maxwell (1908-2000), author and editor, lived at this home from 1910 to 1920. Maxwell often returned to the home and Lincoln, Illinois, in his novels and short stories. His Midwestern childhood, particularly the loss of his mother in the Spanish influenza epidemic of 1918, influenced much of his writing. Maxwell graduated from the University of Illinois and then served as fiction editor for The New Yorker from 1936 to 1976. He authored fourteen works of fiction and memoir, with the novel So Long, See You Tomorrow, earning the American Book Award in 1980. His name is etched on the frieze of the Illinois State Library.|
|Macon||Lincoln National Memorial Highway||The marker is located on Old route 36 west of Decatur, just east of the intersection that leads to Lincoln Homestead State Park.||39° 50.708||-089° 06.052||1934||State of Illinois||From the site of the Lincoln cabin on the Sangamon three miles south of here, to the Wabash River opposite Vincennes, the Lincoln National Memorial Highway follows substantially the route taken by the Lincoln family in their migration from Indiana to Illinois in the Spring of 1830.|
|Macon||Lincoln's First Illinois Home||The marker is located on Old route 36 west of Decatur, just east of the intersection that leads to Lincoln Homestead State Park.||39° 50.709||-089° 06.052||1934||State of Illinois||On an eminence overlooking the Sangamon River three miles south of here stood the first home of Lincoln in Illinois. To this site came the Lincoln family in March, 1830. Here they lived until 1831, when the parents removed to Coles County and Abraham set out on his own career.|
|Macon||Site of the Lincoln Cabin||The marker is located approximately three miles west of Decatur, in the parking lot of the Lincoln Trail Homestead State Park, along the Sangamon River.||39° 48.251||-089° 06.260||The Lincoln Cabin stood near the north bank of the Sangamon River about 600 yards to the east.|
|Madison||Elijah Parish Lovejoy||The marker is located on the grounds of the College Avenue Presbyterian Church, 1702 Clawson Street Alton, IL||38° 54.211||-090° 8.7989||11/11/2012||College Avenue Presbyterian Church and the Illinois State Historical Society.||Elijah Parish Lovejoy
Elijah Parish Lovejoy was the first pastor of upper Alton Presbyterian Church, now College Avenue Presbyterian Church. A minister, teacher, newspaper editior, and martyr to free speech and the abolition of slavery, he was fatally shot on Nov. 7, 1837, defending his printing press from an angry pro-slavery mob. His death attracted national attention, including that of young lawyer Abraham Lincoln, who two months later spoke against "mob law" as contrary to the "fabric of freedom." In 1863, twenty-two years later, President Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation in the presence of Elijah's brother, Owen, a senator from Illinois.
Sponsored by College Avenue Presbyterian Church and the Illinois State Historical Society. November 2012.
|Madison||First State Prison in Illinois||The marker is located in Alton, about 30 yards north of Broadway on the west side of Williams Street. It is in front of the remaining walls of the prison, which are being preserved.||38° 53.479||-090° 11.366||1950||The Illinois State Historical Society||Ruins of the first state prison in Illinois. Built in 1830-31. Unsanitary conditions aroused persistent criticism from Dorothea Dix, pioneer in prison reform. All inmates were transferred to Joliet prior to 1860. During the Civil War many Confederate prisoners were incarcerated here and deaths averaged to ten a day.|
|Madison||Fort Russell||The marker was located 1.5 miles northwest of Edwardsville pn the west side of IL 159. The marker is currently missing.||38° 49.658||-089° 58.219||1934||The Illinois State Historical Society||One quarter-mile to the west stood Fort Russell, a wooden stockade which served as a base of supplies and operations for the Illinois militia during the War of 1812. From here, for months at a time, Governor Ninian Edwards administered the affairs of Illinois Territory.|
|Madison||Goshen Road Terminus||The marker is located in Edwardsville, on the grounds of the Lewis & Clark Library System. The Library is just east of IL Route 159, in the south part of Edwardsville, south of LeClaire, at 425 Goshen Road.||38° 46.890||-089° 56.894||1973||Land of Goshen Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Goshen Road was one of the main arteries of travel in the early 1800's, when Illinois was frontier country. The road ran in a northwesterly direction from Shawneetown to Edwardsville -- a distance of more than 150 miles. Shawneetown and Edwardsville were two of the leading commercial towns in Illinois. The road was named for the Goshen settlement, which lay south and west of Edwardsville. The center of the Goshen settlement was about four miles southwest of here. The road was extended to Edwardsville by 1814 and Alton by 1839.|
|Madison||Governor Coles and Slavery||The marker is located in Edwardsville on a small brick wall on the grounds of the old school on the northeast corner of Liberty Street and Main Street (1200 block).||39° 49.141||-089° 57.842||4/12/1953||The Illinois State Historical Society||Site of the courthouse where in 1824 political enemies convicted Governor Edward Coles of illegally freeing his slaves. 'To preserve to a continuous line of generations that liberty obtained by the valor of our forefathers, we must make provisions for the moral and intellectual improvement of those who are to follow.'|
|Madison||Haskell Playhouse||The marker is located in Alton, at 1211 Henry Street. It is on the east of the street, in front of the playhouse in Haskell Park. It is adjacent to the large former Haskell Mansion, which is being utilized as the Alton Park and Recreation Commission's Offices.||38° 53.918||-090° 10.581||5/29/1989||Alton Park and Recreation Commissions and The Illinois State Historical Society||This unique Quenn Anne style playhouse was built in 1885 for five year old Lucy J. Haskell, daughter of Dr. William A. and Florence Hayner Haskell. It is believed Lucy's grandfather, John E. Hayner, commissioned prominent local architect, Lucas J. Pfeiffenberger, to design the playhouse. In 1889, at age nine, Lucy died of diptheria. After Florence Haskell's death in 1932, the Haskell family gave the estate to the City of Alton for educational and recreational purposes. The playhouse was to be retained in memory of Lucy J. Haskell. Designated a National Register Historic Landmark in 1974.|
|Madison||John Mason Peck||The marker is located at 2800 College Avenue (IL 140) in Upper Alton on the campus of the Southern Illinois University Dental School (formerly Shurtleff College).||38° 54.203||-090° 08.687||9/7/2000||The Shurtleff Fund and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site in 1831, John Mason Peck (1789-1858), pioneer Baptist preacher, author, and educator, established the school which became Shurtleff College. In 1817, Peck had left his home in New England with a vision "to bring the lamp of learning and the light of the gospel" into the undeveloped West. He, his wife Sally, and three children endured an arduous four month trip in a small one-horse wagon, setting in Rock Spring, near O'Fallon, Illinois.
There, in 1827, Peck founded Rock Spring Seminary, the first institution of its kind in the State of Illinois. In 1831, the seminary was moved to the growing city of Alton, where, in 1836, the name was changed to Shurtleff College, recognizing the gift of $10,000 from Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff of Boston.
John Mason Peck is well described as a missionary and a teacher, an author and an editor, a geographer and a cartographer, and a promoter of churches, schools, and western settlement. For thirty years, he was undoubtedly one of the strongest advocates of education and righteousness in the entire Mississippi Valley. He traveled hundreds of miles by horseback or wagon, often under most difficult circumstances, while his wife and children bore his long absences with fortitude.
Peck was one of the foremost ministerial opponents of slavery in Illinois and provided great support to Governor Edward Coles' successful anti-slavery effort in 1824. In 1851, he was honored with a Doctor of Divinity degree from Harvard University. He died on March 16, 1858, and is buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis.
|Madison||Leclaire, Illinois||The marker is located in Edwardsville, in the southeast part of town, at the intersection of IL Route 159 (Troy Road) and Jefferson Road, adjacent to an abandoned railroad, which has been converted to a Bike/Hike Trail.||38° 48.190||-089° 57.064||3/4/2006||The City of Edwardsville, Friends of Laclaire, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Social visionary N. O. Nelson founded the village of Leclaire in 1890, naming it after Edme Jean Leclaire, who inaugurated profit sharing in France. In contrast to unsanitary urban tenement districts, Leclaire was a model cooperative village offering affordable homes, a healthful environment, free education, many opportunities for recreation and self-improvement, and pleasant working conditions at the N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Company. To support his commitment to the 'Golden Rule,' Nelson implemented profit-sharing and employee benefits. during the Great Depression, the City of Edwardsville annexed the Village. Leclaire was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.|
|Madison||Lewis and Clark Expedition||The marker is located south of Wood River on the west side IL Route 3 (Lewis and Clark Drive). The marker is about 1/4 mile north of the intersection of IL Route 3 and IL Route 143.||38° 51.652||-090° 06.611||1976||The Illinois State Historical Society||Meriwether Lewis and William Clark originally planned to camp west of the Mississippi River during the winter of 1803-04. Carlos Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant at St. Louis, however, had not received formal notification from his government of the Louisiana Purchase and would not permit the expedition to cross the river. Thus in the middle of December, 1803, Clark led about twenty-five men to the winter camp on the American side at the mouth of the Wood River, then 1.25 miles southwest of this site.
At Camp River Dubois Lewis and Clark gathered supplies, compiled information and trained their men. Originally there were nine Kentuckians, fourteen soldiers, two French watermen, one hunter- interpreter and Clark's Negro servant at the camp. They were energetic, healthy individualists who did not accept discipline willingly. During the winter Lewis reprimanded several men for refusing to obey the orders of their officers, failing to perform sentry duty and making 'hunting of other business a pretext to cover their design of visiting a neighbouring whiskey shop...'
Additional recruits enlisted for the first part of the trip Through hostile Indian country and in the spring three boats loaded with provisions, ammunition and merchandise were prepared for the long journey from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean and back. On May 14, 1804, Clark and about forty-five men 'Set out at 4 o'clock P.M., in the presence of many of the neighboring inhabitants, and proceeded on under a gentle breeze up the Missouri.'
|Madison||Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Alton||The marker is located in Alton near the riverfront, in a small park where Broadway intersects with Front Street.||38° 53.397||-090° 11.137||1976||4/29/2007||Greater Alton Chamber of Commerce and The Illinois State Historical Society||The seventh and last debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas of the 1858 US Senatorial Campaign, was held at this site on October 15. A crowd estimated at between five and ten thousand people gathered in front of the old City Hall to hear the two candidates. The debates received National Attention, with Lincoln campaigning on an antislavery platform and Douglas on one of States' Rights. Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate seat, but, two years later, in 1860, was defeated by Lincoln for the Presidency.|
|Madison||Mississippi River Festival, The||The marker is located near Edwardsville on the campus of Southern Illinois University – Edwardsville. It is on North University Drive, about one-third mile south of New Poage Road.||38° 48.605||-089° 59.427||SIUE Alumni Association, the SIUE Foundation, the MRF Commemorative Committee, and the Illinois State Historical Society.||The once world-renowned concert venue Mississippi River Festival ("MRF") began as a pioneering experiment in regional cooperation between Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and the St. Louis Symphony. The Symphony was invited to establish residence on the university campus and offer a summer series of concerts and cultural programs in an outdoor amphitheatre constructed on this site. From June 1969 through August 1980, nearly 1.5 million people attending concerts here performed by some of the best artists of the day, including: The Who, Elton John, Judy Collins, Bob Hope, B.B. King, Tina Turner, the Allman Brothers, James Taylor, The St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, The Beach Boys, Henry Mancini, Gordon Lightfoot, The Grateful Dead, Blood, Sweat and Tears, Waylon Jennings, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, The Guess Who, Chick Corea, Joni Mitchell, Barry Manilow, Bob Dylan, EmmyLou Harris, Smokey Robinson, Stanley Clark, Alan Jackson, Arlo Guthrie,
the Ellington Orchestra, Ella Fitzgerald, Yes, Itzhak Perkman, Van Cliburn, Willie Nelson, and the Eagles. Crowds found their seats on the grass or sat beneath the spacious "MRF" tent. The excellence of the performances, the unique charm of the setting, and the enjoyment shared by the diversity of the attendees elevated the MRF to legendary status among artists and fans.
SIU-Edwardsville also utilized this site as the location for commencement exercises for twenty consecutive years (1963-1982), involving nearly 35,000 SIUE graduates, who, along with their family and friends, experienced an event here bearing powerful personal historical significance.
|Madison||Piasa Bird||The marker is located on the River Road bluffs just north of Alton.||10/6/1984||The Junior League of Greater Alton and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673, Jacques Marquette reported that he and fellow French explorer Louis Joliet discovered a painting of what was probably two "water monsters" on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near present-day Alton. By 1700, those pictographic creatures were no longer visible. In 1836, the novelist John Russell described an image cut into the bluff of a legendary dragon-like creature with wings. According to Russell, the creature was called Piasa, "the bird that devours men.": That version of the pictograph, as well as myths about the Piasa, have become prominent in folklore. Erected by the Junior League of Greater Alton and The Illinois State Historical Society, 1984.|
|Madison||Six Mile Prairie||The marker is located in Granite City, on the west side of the 3100 block of Red Bud Avenue, just south of its intersection with Stratford. It is on the grounds of the Six Mile Prairie Museum.||38° 43.320||-090° 06.230||8/20/1989||Old Six Mile Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Six Mile Prairie, located in the American Bottom six miles from St. Louis, was first settled in the 1830's by American farm families who migrated from the Upland south. With their crude farm implements, these pioneers broke through the tough prairie sod to grow crops in this rich bottomland, once called the 'Garden Spot of the State.' The increase in farm trade and Stage coach traffic required improved access between Six Mile Prairie and St. Louis. In 1849 a plank road was constructed of 12 foot oak logs split and laid face up on stringers. This later became an extension of the National Road.|
|Madison||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located on Bypass US 66/US 40 between the Chain of Rocks Bridge and IL 3.||1/5/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile plains in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On Decemnber 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. The Missouri River mouth, now 3.5 miles north of this site, threatened the first explorers. The account of the 1673 expedition reported that while 'sailing quietly in clear and calm water we heard the noise of a rapid, into which we were about to run. I have seen nothing more dreadful. An accumulation of large and entire trees, branches, and floating islands, was issuing from the mouth of the river Pekistanoui (Missouri), with such impetuosity that we could not without great danger risk passing through it. So great was the agitation that the water was very muddy, and could not become clear.' During the winter of 1803-4 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark camped with their men at the nouth of the Wood River, at that time opposite the mouth of the Missouri, before beginning their famous journey.|
|Marion||Centralia Coal Company Mine No 5 Disaster||The marker is located in the town of Wamac, which adjoins Centralia on the south. The marker is in the Wamac City Park, on the east side of Wabash Avenue (old IL Route 51) and opposite the point where Hudson Avenue meets Wabash Avenue.||38° 30.064||-089° 08.371||1991||The Illinois State Historical Society and the City of Wamac, 1991.||
The disaster focused state and national attention on known hazardous conditions existing both at Mine No 5 and the coal mining industry as a whole. Ultimately, the result was passage of new mine safety regulations for the industry.
This marker is dedicated in memory of the miners who lost their lives in the tragedy.
|Marion||Halfway Tavern||The marker is located 8.5 miles east of Salem in a turnout on the north side of US 50.||38° 37.773||-088° 46.596||5/1/1964||Federated Women's Clubs of Marion County and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1779 George Rogers Clark led his army from Kaskaskia through this area to Vincennes where they captured Fort Sackville from the British. In 1818 there were several taverns on this section of the Vincennes-St. Louis Trail. Traditionally, the log building to the east was an early haven for travelers.|
|Marion||Salem, Illinois||The marker is located in Salem, north of the downtown area on Broadway (IL 37), just north of its intersection with Boone Street. It is on the west side of Broadway, in the William Bryan Jennings City Park, and directly across the street from the William Jennings Bryan statue. Originally, there were three additional markers: one in the former Rest Area on IL 37, five miles south of Salem; another on the east edge of Salem on the north side of US 50 4, and the last on south side of US 50, 3.5 miles west of Salem. These three markers were likely removed during highway reconstruction and have been missing for years.||38° 38.129||-088° 56.727||12/28/1965||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Salem is locally known as the 'Gateway to Little Egypt.' Egypt refers to southern Illinois. In the early days of statehood, crop failures threatened the existence of the isolated settlements in northern and central Illinois, and trips were made into the more populated southern section of the state to obtain grain. Salem is located at the crossroad of several prominent old trails, and a settlement was laid out in 1823. Later Mark Tully and Rufus Ricker deeded the land comprising Salem to Marion County for a county seat. The community grew slowly and in 1855 was legally organized as a town. In 1865 it became a city. William Jennings Bryan, 'the Great Commoner,' was born in Salem on March 19, 1860, and lived here until 1883. Lawyer, newspaperman, congressman, Secretary of State, political advisor, and three times a candidate for the Presidency, Bryan was one of the greatest orators of his day. He served as prosecutor in the famous John Scopes trial shortly before his death in July, 1925. His birthplace at 408 S. Broadway is open to the public. Salem has an agricultural and industrial history. It was a principal marketplace for red top hayseed, which was in great demand in Europe during World War I. Oil was discovered near here in 1938, and production of 259,000 barrels daily was reached in March, 1940. In 1942 Salem became the eastern terminus of a 550-mile petroleum pipeline from Texas.|
|Marion||Third Principal Meridian, The||The marker is located about three miles south of Centralia on the northeast corner of the intersection of US 51 and County Road 000N (the Jefferson/Marion County Line Road). It is mounted in a shelter near the stone marking the actual Cardinal Point. The shelter is in the extreme southwest corner of the lawn of a huge Monsanto Plant.||38° 28.457||-089° 08.623||1976||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||At the point where U.S. Highway 51 and the Jefferson-Marion County road meet, the Third Principal Meridian intersects its east-west base line. This cardinal point was established by a Federal surveyor on February 1, 1815. At least 60 percent of the land in Illinois is measured from and identified by these two important coordinates.
In the original thirteen states land had been measured by metes and bounds, employing known landmarks and compass points, but the system had proved inaccurate and impermanent. As a result, the Jefferson Committee on Public Lands devised the rectangular method in 1784. It became law the following year with the passage of the Land Ordinance of 1785, which applied to government lands not yet surveyed in the area northwest of the Ohio River.
The ordinance stated that "The surveyors as they are respectively qualified, shall proceed to divide the said territory into townships of six miles square, by lines running due north and south, and others crossing these at right angles, as near as may be." Each new survey had to be tied to a principal meridian and its base line. The First Principal Meridian was laid out to govern land mostly in the Ohio country; the Second, mostly in Indiana; and the Third--running due north from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers--in Illinois only.
Surveyors' townships are numbered north and south of a base line and placed in ranges that are numbered east and west of a meridian. Unless a township is fractional it is further divided into 36 sections, each measuring one mile by one mile. A full section contains 640 acres.
|Marion||William Jennings Bryan||The marker is located in Salem, north of the downtown area, in front of a large statue of Bryan on the east side of Broadway (IL 37), just north of its intersection with Boone Street. The marker and statue are in a small memorial garden, which is across the street from the William Jennings Bryan Park.||38° 38.129||-088° 56.723||1962||Salem Historical-Patriotical Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||Lived in Salem, Illinois, from his birth, March 19, 1860, until 1875. A national figure after his 'Cross of Gold' speech in 1896, Bryan was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for President in 1896, 1900, 1908, and served as Secretary of State, 1913 - 1915. He died in 1925 after the Scopes 'Evolution' trial.|
|Marshall||Toluca Coal Mine||The marker is located in Toluca, Illinois, on IL 117.||40° 59.970||-089° 08.052||6/3/2001||Illinois History Club of Lexington High School||The Toluca Coal Mine marker is the Site of the Devlin Coal Company, which from 1893 to 1924 employed 771 workers, most of them Italian immigrants. At the height of production (1905) the mine produced 379,000 tons of coal. After the mine closed in 1924, the two large slag heaps became local landmarks known as the "Jumbos," and were climbed by children until constant erosion made them unsafe. An agreement between the City Council of Toluca and the Ill Department of Natural Resources promoted the repair and restoration of the Jumbos, and now they are surrounded by a city park.|
|Massac||Fort Massac||The marker is located near Metropolis the at Fort Massac State Park entrance on US 45.||1988||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The high bank overlooking the Ohio River at Metropolis drew a series of occupants to the site. Prehistoric Native Americans camped near here. In 1757, after years of intermittent use for trading purposes, the French constructed a fortification to block British expansion into the Mississippi River basin. The fort was named in honor of the Marquis de Massiac, a French naval minister. The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 marked the fort passing into British hands. In 1778 as a prelude to his march on Kaskaskia, George Rogers Clark and his men landed at the mouth of Massac Creek and advanced to the fort which they found abandoned. Under orders from President Washington, the fort was rebuilt in 1794 and garrisoned to guard American interests on the lower Ohio River. A customs port was opened as was a post office. Zebulon Pike, for whom Pike's Peak is named, served here as a Lieutenant. After the War of 1812 the post was no longer needed and it was again abandoned. In 1908, in recognition of its historical importance, the site was dedicated as Illinois' first state park. Archaeological excavations in the 1930's, 1960's and 1970's provided information which ultimately resulted in a reconstructed fort from the American period. Dedicated in 1973, the reconstructed fort was not placed on the original location to the west in order to preserve the site's integrity.|
|Massac||George Rogers Clark Campsite||The marker is located in Massac County,||37° 19.839||-088° 52.545||6/30/2003||Bowman’s Company, Illinois Humanities Council, and Illinois State Historical Society||Lt. Col. George Rogers Clark and his troop of 170 volunteers, principally Virginians, camped near this site, called Indian Point, on June 30, 1778. They were marching from Fort Massac to attack the British post at Kaskaskia. This was the first of five campsites on that march. Clark's men would take the post at Kaskaskia and, later, the British fort at Vincennes, Indiana. This work helped secure the Illinois Territory for the United States during the Revolutionary War.|
|Massac||Illinois in the American Revolution||The marker is located in Metropolis at Fort massac State Park.||37° 08.658||-088° 42.731||1976||Illinois Bicentennial Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||George Rogers Clark arrived at Fort Massac on June 30, 1778, with about 175 men, under orders from Virginia to capture the British outposts in Illinois. British failure to regarrison the old French Fort here enabled Clark to enter the Illinois country without opposition. The British at Kaskaskia expected an attack from the Mississippi River. By marching overland Clark surprised them. He arrived at Kaskaskia on the night of July 4-5, and quickly secured the fort without resistance.|
|Massac||Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois||The marker is located a half mile north of Brookport on US 45.||11/13/1964||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the Unites States in 1784, and became part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Many of the early settlers came from Kentucky, Tennessee, and the southeastern coastal states to live in the southern quarter of Illinois. As the better land was taken up, the line of settlement advanced northward. Within the southern portion of the state, Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River was the territorial and the first state capital, and Vandalia was the second state capital. Eight miles west US 45 passes Fort Massac State park, a site which the French fortified extensively in 1757. George Rogers Clark entered the Illinois country near it on his way to capture Kaskaskia. The United States used Fort Massac from 1794 until it was finally abandoned in 1814.|
|Massac||Welcome to Illinois||This marker is on US45 North of the town of Brookport, across the river from Paducah, KY. Prior to the I-24 bridge, US45 and its bridge over the Ohio River was the main road into this part of Illinois.||37° 08.357||-088° 37.844||1988||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchman Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette . Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the Revolution the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. US Route 45 enters Illinois at Brookport proceeding north past the site of Fort Massac, built by the French in 1757, rebuilt by Americans in 1794. It continues north and east through Harrisburg and through the oil fields of Wayne and Clay Counties. Near Mattoon the Wisconsin glacier stopped its southern movement. Route 45 bisects the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana, site of the University of Illinois. Kankakee lies along the route and was the site of early French-Canadian migration. North of Kankakee US 45 passes east of the Jolliet Arsenal which has supplied munitions to the military since 1941. The route skirts Chicago passing through its western suburbs. Route 45 eventually exits Illinois east of Antioch. Along its approximate 230 mile journey through Illinois, Route 45 passes through twenty of the state's 102 counties and eight county seats. Geographically the route begins on a plane roughly equal to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and ends on a plane north of New York City.|
|McHenry||David Haeger School and Cemetery||9/1/2012||The Haeger-Estes-Zachrich family, The Barrington History Museum and The Illinois State Historical Society||This former school, now a residence, and cemetery were named for the David Haeger family, from Germany, who settled in this part of McHenry County. This area was the boyhood home of David Henry Haeger, the eldest son of the Haeger children, who founded the world renowned decorative pottery business in 1871, still in operation today. Prior to the pottery production, Haeger manufactured unique bricks that supplied Chicago with a vast inventory to help rebuild the city after the great fire of 1871. The original school was on the Haeger farm directly north across spring creek road, where meadow hill road ends. As student enrollment increased, a separate building was needed and constructed 0n the cemetery grounds in the 1860's. This frame one-room schoolhouse also served as a community meeting hall and church. Haeger School closed in 1941, as well as other one-room schools in Barrington; most were consolidated into countryside school on Lake Cook road. The adjoining Haeger Cemetery was dedicated by deed in 1854. Some burials took place prior to that time with the oldest headstone dating back to 1842. Four members of the David Haeger family are at rest here along with other early settlers of the region. The cemetery has been closed to burials for over 100 years; the latest headstone is dated 1894. The Barrington Hills comprehensive plan designates this site as a significant historic feature of the village.|
|McHenry||Goodrich Homestead||Plum Tree Farm - 1001 Plum Tree Road - Barrington Hills (south side of road)||42° 1833389||-088° 218076||10/6/2012||The Duresa family,the Barrington History Museum and the Illinois State Historical society||In 1843 Ira C. Goodrich purchased this land from the United States government. AS An early settler to McHenry county, Goodrich founded the local school system, served as director and was road master. Farmsteads like this established by the early settlers set the stage for gentlemen farms where land use changed from agriculture for profit to agriculture for pleasure. Horse breeding and riding became an important part of life in Barrington hills. This site represents the evolution of land and buildings originally homesteaded in 1843 as a traditional farm to its adaptation of a leisure farm in 1926 and is one of the last remaining from this era. The property includes the road on what was once an Indian trail providing early settlers entry into McHenry county. In 1926 Chicago Tribune owner and philanthropist Alfred Cowles Jr. Came here with his sons, Alfred 3rd, Knight and Thomas to enjoy this farm as their country retreat. Cowles was an attorney, civic federation and bureau efficiency president and director of continental bank of Chicago. The family created a Yale university foundation in 1928 with a gift of $350,000. Alfred Cowles 3rd was an American economist, an author and founder of the Cowles commission for economics, serving as president from 1932 to 1939. The headquarters was at the University of Chicago, but moved to Yale University in 1955 and renamed Cowles Foundation. Today, the foundation provides funding for research and study of economics. Subsequent owners of Plum Tree Farm continued with leisure farming activities.|
|McHenry||McHenry County's First Courthouse||The marker is located in the town of McHenry at 1401 North Riverside Drive at its intersection with Pearl Street which is one block north of IL120. The marker is on the northwest corner and one block west of the Fox River.||42° 20.766||-088° 15.719||11/19/2006||The City of McHenry Landmark Commission, the McHenry County Historical Society, and The Illinois State Historical Society||McHenry County's first commissioners met in this building on August 5th, 1840. The original structure was built on the court street side of the public square, now Veterans Park, as McHenry County's first courthouse.
McHenry County split from Cook County in 1836, comprising Lake and McHenry counties. The village of McHenry was the centrally-located county seat. Lake and McHenry counties divided in 1839. In 1843, the county seat was relocated to Centerville, now Woodstock.
In 1844, the government auctioned the courthouse to Horace Long, who moved it to this location on Riverside Drive, originally Water Street, for use as a tavern and hotel. Sponsored by the City of McHenry Landmark Commission, the McHenry County Historical Society, and The Illinois State Historical Society.
|McHenry||Welcome to Illinois||The marer is located in the southwest corner of the junction if IL 47 and the O'Brien-Vanderkaw Road.||42° 26.556||-088° 26.253||7/13/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois Country for France. By the 1763 treaty ending the French and Indian War, this area passed to England. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark's men captured it for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Illinois was later governed as part of the Northwest Territory, the Indiana Territory, and the Illinois Territory. In 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.
The Northwest Ordinance had placed Illinois' northern boundary at the southern tip of Lake Michigan. During the debate on the statehood bill, Nathanial Pope, Illinois Territory's delegate to Congress, proposed an amendment that set the boundary at it's present location. Through Pope's foresight, Illinois gained the fourteen northern counties, including the rich Galena lead mine district and the port of Chicago. The Great Lakes trade route brought settlers from the northeastern states.
Several nearby towns claim distinction. Elgin was the site of a noted watch factory, Dundee was the home of Allan Pinkerton, who founded a detective agency in 1850 and later served Abraham Lincoln's bodyguard and as director of teh spy service during the Civil War.
The Fox River area, formerly a hunting ground for Potawatomi Indians, is now not only a sportsman's paradise but also a land of dairy farms and resorts.
|McLean||Benjaminville Friends Meeting House||.5 mile south of IL 9, 8 miles east of Bloomington||5/12/1995||Illinois History Club of Lexington High School and The Illinois State Historical Society||Benjaminville was founded in the 1850's by Quaker farmers looking for rich prairie soil on which to grow their wheat. The Friends Meeting House, built in 1874, has changed little sicnce then. The adjacent Buriel Ground is divided into two sections: one for Quakers and a second for non-Quakers. When the expected Lake Erie Railroad went elsewhere, the town eventually died. The Meeting House and Buriel Ground are all that remain of Benjaminville. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.|
|McLean||Bloomington-Normal, Illinois||The marker is located in the Funk's Grove Rest Area on I-55, south of Bloomington between Shirley and McLean||40° 21.536||-089° 06.648||9/1/1987||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The first settlement in this area in 1822 was called Keg Grove. By the time a post office was established in 1829 the settlement was known as Blooming Grove. McClean County was organized the following year and Bloomington, which was laid out in 1831 just north of Blooming Grove on 22.5 acres of land donated by James Allin, was selected as county seat. It was incorporated as a town in 1843 and a city in 1850. In 1853 Illinois Wesleyan University was chartered here and in 1857 Normal University, first state-supported school of higher education in Illinois, was established in North Bloomington which soon changed its name to Normal. The State Republican Party was formally organized in Bloomington in 1856 at a convention that Abraham Lincoln delivered his 'Lost Speech,' so called because no record of it was kept. Several of Lincoln's close associates were local residents, including Jesse Fell, credited with the founding of Normal, Leonard Swett, lawyer and campaigner for Lincoln, and David Davis, appointed to the United States Supreme Court by Lincoln (1862-1877) and later United States Senator. Other distinguished residents include Governors John M. Hamilton and Joseph Fifer; Adlai Stevenson I, Vice-President under Cleveland; and Adlai Stevenson II, Governor, twice presidential candidate, and United Nations Ambassador.|
|McLean||David Davis Mansion||The marker is located in Bloomington at 100 East Monroe Street.||40° 28.899||-088° 58.835||1970||The Illinois State Historical Society||This Victorian mansion was the home of Judge David Davis, an associate of Abraham Lincoln's. Construction began in 1870 and was completed in 1872. The house is built of yellow hard-burned face brick with stone quoins in the corners. It is 64 feet wide, extends 88 feet back, and has a tower that rises 50 feet above the ground. The lavish interior includes eight marble fireplaces. Davis was appointed by President Lincoln to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1862 and became a United States Senator in 1877. He returned to Illinois in 1883 and lived here again until his death in 1886.|
|Mclean||Florence Fifer Bohrer||Corner of Walnut and McLean streets, Bloomington, Illinois||9/5/2005||The League of Women Voters of McLean County, the Franklin Park Association, and the Illinois State Historical Society.||Florence Fifer Bohrer 1877-1960 Florence Fifer Bohrer, first woman elected to the Illinois Senate, served two terms from 1925 to 1933. She chaired the Senate committee on state charitable institutions, led efforts to revamp Illinois' child welfare laws, and sponsored legislation creating the state park system. A Republican, she was defeated in the 1932 Democratic landslide. A founder of the nonpartisan League of Women Voters of McLean County in 1933, she also served on the national board as Illinois president. She was a county leader, creating the tuberculosis sanitarium in 1919, and chaired the Emergency Relief Commission during the Great Depression.|
|McLean||Florence Fifer Bohrer 1877-1960||The marker is in Bloomington, east of the downtown area,at the corner of East Walnut Street and McLean Street.||40° 29.198||-088° 59.326||9/5/2005||League of Women Voters of McLean County, the Franklin Park Association, and the Illinois State Historical Society||Florence Fifer Bohrer, first woman elected to the Illinois Senate, served two terms from 1925 to 1933. She chaired the Senate committee on state charitable institutions, led efforts to revamp Illinois' child welfare laws, and sponsored legislation creating the state park system. A Republican, she was defeated in the 1932 Democratic landslide. A founder of the nonpartisan League of Women Voters of McLean County in 1933, she also served on the national board as Illinois president. She was a county leader, creating the tuberculosis sanitarium in 1919, and chaired the Emergency Relief Commission during the Great Depression. Erected by the League of Women Voters of McLean County, the Franklin Park Association, and the Illinois State Historical Society.|
|McLean||Franklin Square Historic District||In Franklin Park, Bloomington (E. Chestnut, Walnut, N. Prairie, N. Mclean)||40° 29.203||-088° 59.402||5/13/1989||Bloomington Historic Preservation Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||Franklin Square contains the homes of former Vice President Adlai Stevenson I and Governor Joseph Fifer. Franklin Park, the centerpiece of the district, was the starting point for partisan torchlight parades in the late nineteenth century. The park, named for Mayor Franklin Price, was donated to the City in 1856 by William Flagg, David Davis and William Allin. Many of the houses on the square were designed by architects Arthur Moratz, George Miller and Arthur Pillsbury. The park and bordering houses were listed on the National Register in 1976 and designated a local Historic District in 1979.|
|McLean||Home of Adlai E. Stevenson I||The marker is located in Bloomington, at 901 North McLean Street, across the street from the east end of the Franklin Park Historical District.||40° 29.162||-088° 59.323||1972||McClean County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society.||This was the home of Adlai E. Stevenson I, Vice-President of thr United States, 1893-1897. Stevenson was born in Kentucky in 1835 and came to Bloomington in 1852. He attended Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington and Centre College in Kentucky. He began to proactive law in Metamora, Illinois in 1858 and returned to Bloomington in 1868. A lifelong Democrat, Stevenson was elected to Congress in 1874 and 1878. He served as First Assistant Postmaster General in President Grover Cleveland's first administration, 1885-1889, and Vice President in Cleveland's second administration, 1893-1897. Stevenson bought this house in 1889. He died in 1914.|
|McLean||Home of Joseph W. Fifer||909 N. McLean, Bloomington||40° 29.201||-088° 59.327||1972||The McLean County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the home of Joseph W. Fifer, Republican Governor of Illinois, 1889-1893. Fifer was born in Virginia in 1840 and came to Illinois in 1857. During the Civil War he served in the 33rd Illinois Infantry Regiment. He graduated from Illinois Wesleyan in Bloomington in 1868 and began to practice law the next year. After being corporation counsel of Bloomington for one year and State's Attorny of McClean County for eight years, he served two terms as State Senator. He moved to these premises in 1893, at the end of his term as Governor, and lived in this red brick house from its completion in 1896 to his death in 1938.|
|McLean||Illinois Soldiers and Sailors' Children School||The marker is located in the northeast section of Normal, on the north side of the 600 block of Lincoln Street, halfway between Douglas and Coles Street.||40° 31.224||-088° 58.562||9/16/2002||ISSCS Historical Preservation Society, The Town of Normal Historical Preservation Commission, and the Illinois State Historical Society||The Illinois Soldiers and Sailors' Children's School (ISSCS) was established in 1865 as the Illinois Soldier's Orphans' Home. Dedicated in 1869, it provided a home for children of the Civil War veterans who had been killed or wounded. In 1899, the state allowed the school to admit indigent children of any veterans. Between 1907 and 1925, indigent children of non-veterans were admitted. In 1931, the name was changed to ISSCS. The facility closed in 1979. In these grounds for 114 years, scores of caregivers and educators provided thousands of children with a homelike environment.|
|McLean||Illinois U.S. Route 66 (site 1)||The marker is located on the west side of the town of Lexington along old Route 66 (County Road 8) at its intersection with Lexington’s Main Street.||40° 38.466||-088° 47.506||10/17/1996||Illinois History Club of Lexington High School and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1926, construction began on a 2,448-mile highway from Chicago to Santa Monica, California. Route 66 reflected the increased use of motorized vehicles. The road, which cut diagonally across Illinois, passed through Lexington. Sleek restaurants, service stations and motels were built specifically to accomadate travelers. The original two-lane, concrete highway - a section of which is located here - was replaced over a span of thirty years by the more modern interstate highway system. In Illinois, Interestate-55 closely parallels old Route 66.|
|McLean||John Patton Cabin, The||1987||Illinois History Club of LCHS and The Illinois State Historical Society||The John Patton Cabin originally situated 3.5 miles southeast of this site, is a structure intimatley linked with the relations of Whites and Indians on the Illinois Frontier. Built with the assistance of the Kickapoo Indians from a nearby village. It was home to John and Margaret Wiley Patton and their 12 children. Three years later these peoples' friendly relations were completely disrupted by the panic associated with the Black Hawk War of 1832. An addition on Pattons' cabin was left windowless and dubbed 'Fort Patton' by the white settlers. In 1984 the cabin was restored to its 1829 appearance.|
|McLean||Matthew T. Scott||The marker is located in Chenoa, at 227 North First Avenue, north of the railroad tracks, in front of the Matthew T. Scott historical home.||40° 44.840||-088° 43.074||1991||Illinois History Club of Lexington High School and The Illinois State Historical Society||Matthew T Scott made his fortune on the grand prairie in the 19th century by developing thousands of acres of farmland. He founded the town of Chenoa in 1855 as a center for his business activities. Although Scott bought and sold over 45,000 acres of Illinois farmland, the development of his personal holdings of 5,000 acres in Livingston and McLean counties was his main interest. To produce maximum yields, Scott had his land drained with pipe tile and 250 miles of ditching. The productivity of his land was a tribute to Scotts planning and ingenuity. Scott's home, constructed in 1855 and enlarged in 1863, was restored in 1983 by his great niece, Elizabeth Stevenson Ives.|
|McLean||Site of the Grand Village of the Kickapoo||The marker is located four miles east of Leroy on County Road 3100. The marker is 6.5 miles north of US 136 on the west side of the county highway at a campsite.||40° 24.119||-088° 40.186||5/22/1999||Illinois History Club of Lexington High School and The Illinois State Historical Society||By the late 1700s the Kickapoo people established a village here. This savannah land was good for corn/bean fields, and close to game-filled prairie and timber. Opposing American expansion they allied with the British during the War of 1812. Village burning and crop destroying practices of teh American frontier militia forced the Kickapoo people from their homes. This village and a nearby stockade were detroyed during that war. Many Kickapoo remained in Central Illinois until 1832, when they were forced out. Today the Kickapoo people live in Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.|
|Menard||Dr. Benjamin Franklin Stephenson, 1823-1871||The marker is located one mile east of Petersburg on IL Route 23, at the entrance to Rosehill Cemetery, on the south side of the highway.||40° 00.794||-089° 49.714||1956||The Illinois State Historical Society||Founder of the Grand Army of the Republic, Menard County resident, Rush Medical College graduate 1850, surgeon 14th Illinois Volunteers 1861-1864, he originated the G.A.R. name, ritual, constitution of Post No. 1, Decatur, April 6, 1866, called first national G.A.R. convention and was its first adjutant general.|
|Menard||Lincoln's Store Partner||The marker is located four miles north of Salisbury and 3.5 miles south of New Salem, at the intersection of IL Route 97 and Rock Creek Road (County Road 5).||39° 55.429||-089° 50.425||1953||The Illinois State Historical Society||William F. Berry, 1811 - 1835, is buried two miles west in the cemetery of Rock Creek Cumberland Presbyterian Church. His father, the Rev. John M. Berry, founded the church in 1822. Abraham Lincoln and Berry were partners in a store at New Salem in 1832-1833. Berry was a corporal in Captain Abraham Lincoln's Company in the Black Hawk War.|
|Menard||Long Nine Banquet Site||The marker is located in Athens, adjacent to the Long Nine Museum, at the southeast corner of the intersection of Main Street and Jefferson Street.||39° 57.608||-089° 43.431||1974||Long Nine, Inc. and The Illinois State Historical Society||In this structure, built about 1832, residents of the Athens area held a banquet on August 3, 1837, for the 'Long Nine' - Abraham Lincoln and the other State legislators from Sangamon County. The men, whose height totaled fifty-four feet, were honored for their success in the tenth General Assembly in changing the State Capitol from Vandalia to Springfield. State offices were moved in 1839. At the Athens banquet Lincoln gave a toast: 'Sangamon County will ever be true to her best interests and never more so than in reciprocating the good feelings of the citizens of Athens and neighborhood.'|
|Menard||Mentor Graham, 1800-1886: Teacher of Abraham Lincoln||The marker is located two miles south of Petersburg on the east side of Il. Rt. 97 at the entrance of Farmer’s Point Cemetery.||39° 56.585||-089° 50.721||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||"I think I may say that he was my scholar and I was his teacher." At New Salem, Lincoln read Graham's books and in 1833 studied grammar and surveying. Teacher in Kentucky and Illinois more than 50 years, Graham died in South Dakota. In 1933 his remains were removed here.|
|Mercer||Abraham Lincoln in Mercer County||The marker is located in Aledo on the northeast corner of the County Courthouse which is at 100 SE 3rd Street which is also IL 17.||41° 11.984||-090° 44.893|
|Monroe||Bellefontaine||The marker is located in Waterloo in the southwest part of town on the southeast corner of Church and Hoerner streets.||38° 19.155||-090° 09.027||7/21/1976||Monroe County Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||Bellefontaine was one of the first settlements made by Americans in what is now Illinois. The earliest settlers included families of Revolutionary War veterans who had served with George Rogers Clark. Captain James Moore brought a band of pioneers from Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1781-1782. The settlement took its name from a nearby spring the French called 'La Belle Fontaine' (beautiful spring). By the 1800's it was the third largest community in the Illinois Territory.|
|Monroe||Holy Cross Lutheran Church of Wartburg||The marker is located in Wartburg, on the Maeystown Road four miles southwest of Waterloo in the church parking lot.||38° 17.336||-090° 11.912||11/3/1996||Holy Cross Lutheran Church of Wartburg and The Illinois State Historical Society||The church was organized in 1841 by Pastor G. A. Schieferdecker and settlers from Saxony, Thuringia, and Westfalia, Germany. The site was donated in 1849 by Johann Christian and Katherine Just. The present church was erected in 1863, and the tower was re-built in 1913. English services were introduced in 1926 but did not predominate until 1946. Monthly German services were discontinued in 1967. The congregation also operated a christian day school here from 1841 unil 1960. Holy Cross is considered the mother church for several surrounding congregations.|
|Monroe||Maeystown||The marker is located in Maeystown which is 8 miles west of Waterloo. The marker is just east of Zeitinger’s Mill at the corner of Mill and Franklin Streets and just west of a scenic stone bridge.||38° 13.537||-090° 13.985||1988||Maeystown Preservation Society, Village Board, Civic Ass., Fire Department, Women's Club, & The Illinois State Historical Society||Maeystown, where three streams descend the bluff, was founded by Jacob Maeys in 1852. The original settlers were German members of the Forty-Eighter Movement. The village is unique in manner with structures integrated into the landscape. The original stone church held services intermittently in German until 1943. Sixty significant buildings still exist, including Maeys' log house, the original church, the stone bridge, Zeitinger's Mill, and various outbuildings, barns and smokehouses made of limestone, brick, and wood. These buildings built in the mid to late 1800's form this quaint little village. Maeystown was designated as an Historic District in 1978.|
|Morgan||Barton Warren Stone||McKean Family Farm, McKean Road, South Jacksonville,||5/22/2005||Lincoln Christian College and Seminary and the Illinois State Historical Society||Barton Warren Stone (1772-1844)
A leading figure of the 19th-century "Stone-Campbell" Restoration movement, Barton Warren Stone owned and lived on this farm from 1838 to 1844. Stone advocated the unity of all Christians, served as an educator and church planter, and published The Christian Messenger, a leading journal of its day. Seeking a location free of slavery, in 1834 he moved from Kentucky to Jacksonville where he founded Central Christian Church.
Many Christian churches have their origin in the Stone-Campbell movement. Stone died in Hannibal, Missouri, in 1844, and was buried on this farm. In 1847, his body was moved to the Cane Ridge church cemetery near Paris, Kentucky.
|Morgan||Barton Warren Stone (1772-1844)||The marker is located southeast of Jacksonville on the McLean family farm which is on McLean Road and 0.25 miles southeast of the road’s overpass of I-72.||39° 41.949||-090° 11.177||5/22/2005||Lincoln Christian College and Seminary and the Illinois State Historical Society||A leading figure of the 19th-century "Stone-Campbell" Restoration movement, Barton Warren Stone owned and lived on this farm from 1838 to 1844. Stone advocated the unity of all Christians, served as an educator and church planter, and published The Christian Messenger, a leading journal of its day. Seeking a location free of slavery, in 1834 he moved from Kentucky to Jacksonville where he founded Central Christian Church.
Many Christian churches have their origin in the Stone-Campbell movement. Stone died in Hannibal, Missouri, in 1844, and was buried on this farm. In 1847, his body was moved to the Cane Ridge church cemetery near Paris, Kentucky.
|Morgan||Big Eli Wheel #17||The marker is located in the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce Park which is at the corner of Main and Morgan Streets. It occupies the grounds of the old mental institution. The marker is located right next to the actual Ferris Wheel.||39° 43.372||-090° 13.786||9/24/1989||Save the Wheel Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||I have discovered the machine I want to design and build, a portable 'Ferris Wheel'', W.E. Sullivan, 1893. A young man's dream became reality when W.E. Sullivan, of Roodhouse, Illinois, designed and built a small, portable, revolving wheel, patterned after the 'Ferris Wheel' at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He called his invention, 'Big Eli.' On May 23, 1900, in the square of downtown Jacksonville, 'Big Eli' a 45' high 'wheel' made of twelve structural steel 'spokes' with carriage seats at their extremities, and supported by a steel axle, offered rides to all who dared to 'revolve' in the bridge-like contraption. It grossed $5.56 that day. 'Big Eli #17' thrilled crowds at amusement parks in Duluth, MN; Leavenworth, KS; San Antonio, TX; Guaymas, Mexico; and, Miami, FL. In 1957, #17 returned home to the Eli Bridge Company for renovation. Originally built with 10 seats, #17 was converted to a '12-seater' and sold to the Jacksonville Rotary Club. Rotary installed #17 in Nichols Park and operated it there until increased insurance costs forced its closure in 1985.
In 1986, the Rotary Club donated the 'Big Eli #17' to the City of Jacksonville. With the assistance of Eli Bridge Company, and private donations, the structure was renovated and re-erected at its present site. Big Eli #1 stands in the front yard of the Eli Bridge Company.
|Morgan||College Building||Illinois College Campus||5/21/2004||Illinois College Class of 2004 and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood the College Building, built in 1832. With a capacity of over 100, the main four-story brick structure, 100 by 40 feet, served as a dormitory and dining room. The north wing housed President Edward Beecher and family, the south wing Professor Julian Sturtevant and family. Fire destroyed the main building and the north wing on December 29, 1852. The south wing was razed in 1954. From 1839-1862, nine editions of Mitchell's Geography contained illustrations of the building, Harvard being the only other college so illustrated.|
|Morgan||Farmers State Bank and Trust Company, The||The marker is located in Jacksonville and is mounted on the south side of the bank building on State Street, immediately west of the town square.||39° 44.058||-090° 13.817||1987||Morgan County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||The site of the Farmers State Bank and Trust Company Building, formerly known as the Ayers National Bank Building, has been associated with banking longer than any other site in the State of Illinois and possibly the entire Old Northwest.
By 1832, David Ball Ayers, with the help of his Philadelphia connections, was extending credit from this site to the residents of Morgan County. This building, which opened in 1913, housed the Ayers National Bank until the bank's failure in 1932. The building was later purchased by the Farmers State Bank and Trust Company.
|Morgan||First Illinois State Hospital for the Insane||The marker is located in Jacksonville on the southern edge of the old State Hospital Grounds on Michigan Street.||39° 42.965||-090° 14.095||1992||Jacksonville Area Genealogical and Historical Society, Jacksonville Developmental Center and IDOT||Miss Dorothea Dix in her 'memorial to the Senate and House of the Representatives of Illinois' urged their serious consideration of the afflicted condition of an increasing class of insane sufferers, whose healthful exercise of their intellectual faculties were withdrawn, incapable of self-government and self care. As a result the Assembly passed a law in 1847 stating 'there shall be established, within four miles of the town of Jacksonville, county of Morgan, an institution to be known as the Illinois State Hospital for the Insane.' Joseph Morton, James Dunlap, John J. Hardin, John Henry, Samuel D. Lockwood, William G. Thomas, Bezaleel Gillett, Nathaniel English and Owen M. Long constituted a body corporate as trustees. The building , under Superintendent Dr. James M. Higgins, was opened to accept the first patient, Sophronia McElhiney, McLean County, 3 November, 1851.
The first deceased patient buried on this site, 13 February, 1852, was Martha Fisher, Morgan County. This Immanuel North Cemetery has 234 recorded buriels from 78 counties, 1852-1879 as copied form an old cemetery book uncovered in 1979 at the old administration building. The deceased hereon represent a cross section of various life-styles, friendships, occupations, religions, races and creeds from families of many nationalities and origins.
|Morgan||Greene Vardiman Black||The marker is located in Jacksonville on the south side of the street at 300 East State Street. It is a few blocks east of the town square.||39° 44.049||-090° 13.507||1973||G.V. Black District Society, Illinois State Dental Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||G.V. Black, 'Father of Modern Dentistry,' was born in 1836 on a farm near Winchester, Illinois. He studied medicine and dentistry and in 1857 began his practice of dentistry in Winchester. After serving in the Civil War, he resumed his dental practice in Jacksonville. His home and last office stood on this site. Here he did extensive research, wrote hundreds of papers and books, and invented many dental intruments. Many of his ideas on care and restoration of teeth became the accepted methods. Dr. Black taught Dental Pathology at several dental schools. He moved to Chicago in 1897 to become Dean of the Northwestern University Dental School, serving until his death in 1915.|
|Morgan||Historic Meredosia||The marker is located in Meredosia, in Boyd Park, which is on the south side of IL Route 104, just east of the approach to the bridge over the Illinois River.||39° 49.835||-090° 33.736||5/1/1988||Meredosia Area Historical & Genealogical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Legend has it that the name 'Meredosia' comes from the French word for lake, 'mere' and the name of the first white man to live in the area, a French priest named Antoine D'Osia. Another legend is that the willows along the lake shore were called 'osiers' by the French or 'lake of the Willows.'
The Illinois River made the village an important commercial center. Early transportation was by means of canoe or keel boat. Steamboats began coming to Meredosia in 1826 and were an important factor in organizing the village in 1832. Access to the ports of the world made the Kappal Brothers Fur Company the Midewest's second largest with over one-half million dollars in furs shipped to Russia and England annually. The Kappal buildings are still in use in the downtown section.
The Skinner Bandstand located in Boyd Park memorializes Meredosia's most famous son. Frank Skinner, famous as a composer, arranger, and director of musical scores for over 500 motion pictures, played and directed at this bandstand regularly in his youth in the 1910's.
The first steam locomotive west of the Allegheny Mountains was built in Meredosia. The 'Northern Cross', which became the mighty Wabash Railroad, began on November 8, 1838 when an experimental steam locomotive, the 'Rogers', took its initial journey.
'Shellers' worked the river daily supplying their catch to three local button factories. The Wilbur E. Boyd Button Factory was the last independent 'pearl' button factory in the U.S., ceasing operations in 1948.
|Morgan||Illinois College||Turnout on northwest corner of Lincoln Avenue and US 36 west of Jacksonville.||39° 43.404||-090° 14.979||10/25/1966||Illinois College and The Illinois State Historical Society||Founded in 1829 by Presbyterian and Congregational ministers, it was the first college in Illinois to graduate a class. The first graduate was Richard Yates, Civil War Governor. Alma mater of William Jennings Bryan, '81. Beecher Hall, the State's oldest college building, is on the campus one-half mile north.|
|Morgan||Jacksonville, Illinois||US 67, north of Jacksonville. US 36-54, east of Jacksonville. US 36-54 , West of Jacksonville||39° 43.360||-090° 13.848||1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Jacksonville, county seat of Morgan County, was founded in 1825 and named for Andrew Jackson. It was a contender for the state capitol in 1837.
Jacksonville was an early education center. Seven men known as the 'Yale Band' were instrumental in founding Illinois College, one of the earliest colleges chartered in Illinois, in 1829. It graduated the first college class in Illinois, in 1829. Jonathan Baldwin Turner, outstanding faculty member and leader in agricultural education, settled here in 1833. For many years he led the fight for land grant colleges resulting in the Morrill Act (1862). The Jacksonville Female Academy was the first women's school incorporated by the Illinois legislature (1835). In 1846 the Illinois Methodist Conference established the Illinois Conference Female Academy which became MacMurray College (1930). The Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School are also here. Dr. Green Varadiman Black, internationally recognized pioneer in modern dentistry, opened an office here in 1863 and practiced until 1897.
Jacksonville was the home of three Illinois governors - Joseph Duncan (1834-1838), Richard Yates (1861-1865), and Richard Yates, Jr. (1901-1905). Stephen A. Douglas and William Jennings Bryant began their law practices here in 1834 and 1883 respectively. Douglas was Morgan County prosecuting attorney; Illinois legislator, secretary of state, and supreme court judge; U.S. Representative and Senator: and presidential candidate against Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Bryant, an Illinois College graduate, was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Secretary of State, and three times presidential candidate.
|Morgan||New Method Book Bindery||The marker is located in Jacksonville and is mounted on the north side of a building at 220 South Main Street.||39° 43.967||-090° 13.732||10/1/2010||Morgan County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||
New Method later specialized in "pre-binding" books, using special materials and processes to make new children's books more durable for use in school and public libraries. Millions of the books used in these libraries over many decades have been "Bound To Stay Bound Books," earning Jacksonville, Illinois, the title of "Library Book Binding Capital of the World" in 1954.
|Morgan||Stephen Arnold Douglas||rest area, US 36 -54, 5 miles northeast of Winchester (missing)||39° 43.363||-090° 13.848||1973||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Stephen A. Douglas was born in Brandon, Vermont, in 1813. He attended schools there and in New York State. In 1833 he settled in Winchester, Illinois, five miles southwest, where he taught school. In 1834 he moved to Jacksonville, eight miles northeast of here, and began to practice law. He soon became a leader of the Democratic Party in Illinois. He was elected Representative to the State Legislature in 1836, appointed Illinois Secretary of State in 1840, and elected Judge of the State Supreme Court in 1841.
After moving to Quincy, Douglas served as a representative in Congress from 1843 to 1847. He changed his residence to Chicago in 1847 and served in the United States Senate from 1847 until his death in 1861.
As an expansionist, Douglas favored acquisition of Oregon to 54 40' north latitude, annexation of Texas, and Federal grants for constructing a transcontinental railroad. The annexation of Texas led to the Mexican War and American acquisition of new western lands. The bills to organize this area into territories were included in the Compromise of 1850. Embodied in these bills and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which Douglas intorduced in 1854, was the doctrine of 'Popular Sovereignty' -the idea that the people in each territory could decide the issue of slavery for themselves.
In the debates of the 1858 Senatorial campaign, Abraham Lincoln asked Douglas to reconcile 'Popular Sovereignty' and the Supreme Court decision that slavery could not be barred from the territories. In reply Douglas advanced the Freeport Doctrine: That slavery could be excluded by local legislation. Douglas kept the Senate seat but lost southern support for his presidential candidacy in 1860.
|Ogle||Boles Trail, The||The marker is located 1.5 miles east of Polo on Pines Road, just east of where Pines Road meets Oregon Trail Road. It is on the south side of the road facing north.||41° 59.313||-089° 32.607||1964||Polo Historical Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||In 1825 Oliver W. Kellogg blazed a trail from Peoria to Galena which passed east of this site. On a spring day in the following year John Boles marked a shorter route near this point. The news of the Boles Trail spread and it became a heavily traveled route for the next three years.|
|Ogle||Buffalo Grove||The marker is located in the extreme southwest outskirts of Polo about 0.5 miles west of IL Route 52. It is on the southeast corner of Galena Trail Road and Millidgeville Road (also called Oregon Trail Road).||41° 58.851||-089° 35.694||1964||Polo Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Soceity||The Indians called this area Nanusha (buffalo). The first settlers arrived here in 1829 and six years later a village, St. Marion, was laid out. About 1840 the name was changed to Buffalo Grove and the village prospered until 1855 when the railroad steamed through Polo. Naturalist John Burroughs taught here in 1856-1857.|
|Ogle||Buffalo Grove Lime Kiln||The marker is located at the site of the kiln, which is west of the town of Polo. It is 1,400 feet west of the Galena Trail Road and adjacent to the Burlington Northern Railroad.||41° 59.162||-089° 36.294||6/5/2007||The Polo Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This free-standing, perpetual-burning lime kiln was used to produce lime mortar, a product widely utilized by the building industry. The area was known as Buffalo Grove after a thriving early settlement along the Galena Trail. The region retained the name even thought the community had relocated in 1855 and was renamed Polo. Mortar was made by using ropes and pulleys to raise baskets of quarried limestone to the top of the kiln where the rocks were dropped inside. To create the intense heat needed to change the rock into fine, white-powdered lime, workers fed wood into the draft shaft through the two fireboxes located on opposite sides of the kiln. The powdered lime fell into a chamber at the bottom of the kiln, where it was shoveled out and stored in barrels in the attached lime house. The ashes fell into ash pits located under each firebox. The kiln sits on the quarry floor in close proximity to the resources need for lime production. The adjacent bluffs provided the raw material and the nearby grove of trees supplied the fuel. The Polo Historical Society purchased the site in 1985 and restored the kiln to functional condition in 1993. The protective roof was not part of the original structure. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Sponsored by the Polo Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society.|
|Ogle||First House & Store in Forreston||Forreston Grade School, front lawn||9/17/2005||The 2004 Forreston Sesquicentennial Committee and The Illinois State Historical Society|| In the spring of 1825, Oliver W. Kellogg blazed a trail north through the prairie, passing near the future West Grove settlement, then a few miles
east of Forreston, and up through Crane's Grove.
A year later, John Boles opened a shorter trail which passed through White Oak Grove, ½ mile west of Forreston, the location of the nearest log cabin to the town.
Secondary trails linked these major routes of pioneer travel and intersected at this location. Early settlers included immigrants from the lowlands of Ostfriesland in Northern Germany. Their narrative accounts recalled this location as the site of first brick house and store constructed in Forreston.
Founder George Hewitt platted the town in the fall of 1854, and built his brick home two blocks west of this location. The Illinois Central Railroad laid tracks to Forreston in the winter of that year, which led to the growth of the town.
|Ogle||First House and Store in Forreston||The marker is located in Quincy at the northwest corner of Seventh Street and Maine Street, directly in front of St. Boniface Catholic Church.||9/17/2005||2004 Forreston Sesquicentennial Committee and The Illinois State Historical Society||In the spring of 1825, Oliver W. Kellogg blazed a trail north through the prairie, passing near the future West Grove settlement, then a few miles east of Forreston, and up through Crane's Grove. A year later, John Boles opened a shorter trail which passed through White Oak Grove, ½ mile west of Forreston, the location of the nearest log cabin to the town. Secondary trails linked these major routes of pioneer travel and intersected at this location. Early settlers included immigrants from the lowlands of Ostfriesland in Northern Germany. Their narrative accounts recalled this location as the site of first brick house and store constructed in Forreston. Founder George Hewitt platted the town in the fall of 1854, and built his brick home two blocks west of this location. The Illinois Central Railroad laid tracks to Forreston in the winter of that year, which led to the growth of the town.|
|Ogle||First Steel Plow, The||The marker is located in Grand Detour on the grounds of John Deere Interpretation Center at 8393 Main Street along the Rock River on IL 2. The marker is about 20 feet west of the fence along Main Street||41° 53.778||-089° 24.989||1963||The Illinois State Historical Society||In his blacksmith shop located on this lot, John Deere made the first successful steel plow in 1837. In contrast to previous models, Deere's plow, with its steel share and carefully shaped mold board, turned the sticky black earth polishing itself clean and thus helped open the vast rich prairies to agricultural development.|
|Ogle||Galena Road, The||The marker is located 1.5 miles south of Polo where US Route 52 /IL 26 intersect with Henry Road. It is on the south edge of the old school grounds and faces south toward Henry Road.||41° 57.571||-089° 34.763||1964||Polo Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||In the early 1830's pioneer traffic moving north from Peoria crowded primitive trails and forced a direct route to Galena. In 1833, Levi Warner's state survey marked the "Galena Road." It cut through this schoolyard. Private Abraham Lincoln passed this site June 13, 1832 in Captain Elijah Iles's Black Hawk War Company.|
|Ogle||Grand Detour, Illinois||The marker is located in a large pull-out area along the Rock River in Grand Detour. The pull-out area is on the east side of IL Rt. 2 and directly across the highway from the John Deere Historic Interpretation Center. (missing)||41° 53.762||-089° 24.758||6/15/1964||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Early French traders who traveled the Rock River named the large bend southwest of this point, Grand Detour. Winnebago and Potawatomi villages in the area made it a prominent location for fur trading posts, and during the 1820's the United States Government granted licenses to traders at 'Grand Detour on Rocky River.' Permanent settlement at Grand Detour began after Leonard Andrus traveled up the Rock River in 1834 in search of a town site. Impressed by the natural beauty of the region and the power and transportation potential of the river, Andrus claimed the land and in 1836 laid out a village. A year later John Deere, a Vermont blacksmith, settled in Grand Detour. While working in his shop, Deere heard farmers lament that the rich Illinois soil stuck to the wooden and iron plows they had brought from the East. Deere tackled the problem and shaped a steel plow out of a discarded saw blade from the Andrus saw mill. The soil slid smoothly off the highly polished steel surface, and as the demand for his plows increased, Deere began production using steel imported from England and later from Pennsylvania. High freight costs forced him to seek better transportation facilities, and in 1847 he moved from Grand Detour to Moline, Illinois, on the Mississippi River, where he began manufacturing plows in quantity. Since the Rock River was never developed for navigation and the railroads bypassed the community, Grand Detour retains much of its nineteenth-century atmosphere.|
|Ogle||Indian Ambush||The marker is located 1.5 miles west of Polo where Eagle Point Road runs North and South. It is on the west side of the road.||41° 59.461||-089° 36.166||1962||Polo Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Early in the Black Hawk War Indians concealed near this spot in Buffalo Grove, May 19, 1832, killed William Durley, a member of a six man detail carrying dispatches from Colonel James M. Strode at Galena to General Henry Atkinson at Dixon's Ferry. Durley's body now rests beneath this memorial.|
|Ogle||Lincoln in Polo||The marker is located in Polo, on the grounds of the Applington House, which is the Polo Historical Society headquarters. It is one block east of the main highway, US Route 52/IL 26, at 123 North Franklin, which is at the corner of Franklin and Locust.||41° 59.234||-089° 34.658||1973||Ogle County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Abraham Lincoln was a guest in this house, August 15-17, 1856. His host was Zenas Aplington, founder of Polo. On Saturday, August 16, John D. Campbell and James W. Carpenter, who were law partners in Polo, joined Lincoln and Aplington in a drive by a carriage to Oregon, Ogle County Seat. There Lincoln and 'Long John' Wentworth, six-term Congressman and later Mayor of Chicago, were among the several speakers at a political rally for John C. Fremont, first Republican Presidential candidate.|
|Ogle||Lorado Taft's Indian Statue||Illinois 2 north of Oregon, Illinois (missing)||9/1/1982||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Sculptor Lorado Taft designed the massive statue as his tribute to the various Indians who lived on these wooded bluffs. Taft's reinforced concrete figure, popularly called Black Hawk, was begun in 1909 and dedicated in 1911. From its base more than one hundred feet above the river, it stands nearly fifty feet high. Taft completed the statue while a member of the nearby Eagle's Nest Camp, an artists' colony. The camp was on the property of Wallace Heckman, a Chicago attorney and patron of the arts, who in 1898 invited Taft and other artists to establish a scenic retreat and workplace. Painters, musicians, sculptors, writers, and architects lived there with their families during the summer. The colony, which flourished until 1942, took its name from Eagle's Nest Bluff, whose beauty was noted as early as 1843 by traveler and poet Margaret Fuller. In 1945 the State of Illinois purchased this land for Lowden State Park, a memorial for World War I Governor Frank O. Lowden, who resided southeast of Oregon at Sinnissippi Farm. In 1951 that portion of the park known as Eagle's Nest was transferred to Northern Illinois University and named the Lorado Taft Field Campus for Outdoor Education.|
|Ogle||Mount Morris College||The marker is located in Mount Morris, on the town square (former Mount Morris College grounds), about 20 yards west of South Wesley Avenue, and faces northeast at an angle.||42° 02.855||-089° 26.028||1975||Ogle County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Rock River Seminary, the first institution of higher education in Northern Illinois, was established by the Methodist Church in 1839. Because of financial difficulties it was forced to close in 1879. The Church of the Brethren then purchased the campus and established Mount Morris Seminary and Collegiate Institute. In 1884 the name was changed to Mount Morris College. This building, 'Old Sandstone,' was reconstructed in 1912, after the original 'Old Sandstone,' built in the 1850's, was partially destroyed by fire. Mount Morris College closed in 1932.|
|Ogle||Regulators and the Banditti, The||Rest area, east side of IL 2, about 6 miles north of Oregon (missing)||42° 04.870||-090° 02.565||8/24/1969||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||In the 1830,s and 1840,s an organized criminal gang known as the Banditti of the Prairie was active on the midwestern frontier. In 1841 six members were arrested and held for trial in Oregon, Illinois. On March 21, the day before the trial, the new Oregon courthouse was burned. In retaliation, a group led by W.S. Wellington organized the Regulators and ordered several suspected Banditti to emigrate or be whipped. Some left but those remaining forced Wellington to resign as Regulator leader. He was replaced by John Campbell.
John Driscoll, a Banditti leader, and his four sons (Pierce, William, David, and Taylor) made a career of horse stealing and murder. When the Regulators gave the Driscolls 20 days to leave Illinois, the Banditti decided to kill Campbell and Phineas Chaney, another Regulatorleader. Chaney escaped but on June 27, 1841, Campbell was killed by David and Taylor while John, William, and Pierce waited nearby. John was caught and jailed at Oregon. The Regukators apprehended William and Pierce and forcibly took John from jail. The three were 'tried' in Washington Grove on June 29 by a jury of 111 Regulators. Pierce was released but the other two were found guilty. John was shot by 56 men and William by 55. Although Banditti activity continued for several years, it was no longer centered in Ogle County.
The Regulator judge and jury (112 men) were tried for the vigilante murder of the Driscolls and were acquitted.
|Ogle||Stillman's Defeat||The marker is located in the cemetery on IL Route 72 on the west side of the town of Stillman Valley, which is four miles east of the Rock River. The marker is directly south of the twelve graves of the Illinois militia who died there.||42° 06.407||-089° 10.579||1934||State of Illinois||Here, on May 14, 1832, the first engagement of the Black Hawk War took place, when 275 Illinois militiamen under Maj. Isaiah Stillman were put to flight by Black Hawk and his warriors. So thoroughly demoralized were the volunteers that a new army had to be called into the field.|
|Ogle||Thomas Ford||Courthouse, IL 2 & 64, Oregon (missing)||1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Thomas Ford, eighth governor of Illinois, was born in Pennsylvania in 1800 and came to Illinois in 1805, with the aid of his half-brother, George Forquer. He received some advanced education and studied law. He practiced law at Waterloo and, in partnership with Forquer, at Edwardsville. From 1829 to 1835 he served as prosecuting attorney for all of the state west and north of the Illinois River. On January 14, 1835, the state legislature elected Ford judge of the sixth judicial circuit, which then included all counites in the northern quarter of the state. Soon after that date and until he was elected governor, Ford made his residence here in Ogle County. He became judge of the Chicago Municipal Court in 1837. In 1839 he was elected judge of the ninth circuit, comprised of nine counties between the Rock and the Fox and the Illinois Rivers. In 1841 a Democratic-controlled state legislature enlarged the Supreme Court to nine men, who doubled as circuit judges. Ford was named to the court and reassigned to the ninth circuit. He sat on the bench in Oregon during the last days of a band of outlaws called the Banditti of the Prairie. Ford was elected governor as a democrat in August 1842. When he took office in December, he faced a critical state debt and the Mormon troubles. He refused to repudiate the debt and secured adoption of a plan to liquidate it. Both before and after the murder of Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, Ford called out the militia to preserve order between Mormons and their foes. At the end of his term Ford resumed the practice of law in Peoria, where he died in 1850. His History of Illinois was published posthumously.|
|Peoria||Gomo - Leader Of The Potowatomi||Chillicothe's Lake Shores Park on the West Bank of the Illinois River||10/26/2013||The French Heritage Corridor Association and the Illinois State Historical Society||Gomo or Masemo (Resting Fish) (B. CA. 1750 - D. 1815), a Potawatomi leader, respected by members of many tribes, the residents of French Peoria, governor of the Illinois Territory Ninian Edwards, and William Clark, then U.S. agent for Indian Affairs. Gomo advocated neutrality in the conflict between tribes and the United States, sought peace for the Potawatomi of the Illinois Valley, and demanded equal justice for Indians and Americans. He could not stem the tide of American settlement. His nearby village was destroyed in the winter of 1813, but he returned here to live out his days, passing in 1815.|
|Peoria||Jubilee College||The marker is located just west of Kickapoo, at a turnout 200 feet off north side of U.S. 150 on the east side of Princeville/Jubilee Road.||40° 47.531||-089° 45.931||1935||State of Illinois||Jubilee College, two miles to the north, was established by Philander Chase, first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Illinois, as one of the State's early institutions of higher learning. First students were received in 1840, and the school continued to operated until 1868. Jubilee College is now a State Park.|
|Peoria||Peoria, Illinois||The marker is located on the extreme northern edge of Peoria, in Detweiler Park, which on IL Rt. 29. After turning into the park, the road curves left toward the marker.||40° 47.600||-089° 34.830||1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The city of Peoria was named for the Peoria tribe of the Iliniwek Indian Confederacy who once lived here. It was in 1673 that Jacques Marquette and the explorer Louis Jolliet traveled through the widened portion of the Illinois River know as Lake Peoria, on which the city is situated. Robert Cavalier, Sieur De La Salle, built Fort Creve Coeur on the bluffs across the river from the present Peoria site in 1680, assisted by Henri Tonti. Because of Indian attacks, the Fort was abandoned later that year. In 1691, Tonti returned to the area and along with Francois De La Forest built Fort St. Louis on the banks where the river narrows, just south of Lake Peoria. Militia units from Illinois and Missouri erected Fort Clark in 1813, in the area that is now downtown Peoria. In 1825 the city was named as the seat of the newly created Peoria county. Peoria was surveyed and laid out in 1826 by William S. Hamilton, son of Alexander Hamilton. It was incorporated as a town in 1837 and as a city in 1844. At the Peoria courthouse on October 16, 1854, Abraham Lincoln delivered one of his first speeches denouncing slavery. His remarks were a reply to Stephen A. Douglas, who had spoken on behalf of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The city's economy is broadly based in agri-business, manufacturing, distribution, and services. Heavy construction equipment, wire and wire products, medical services and research, marketing, and communications are major industries. Peoria is the home of Bradley University, a private co-educational institution founded in 1897 with a bequest from Lydia Moss Bradley.|
|Peoria||Pimiteoui||The marker is located in Peoria Heights, in the 4900 block of North Grandview Drive, three blocks east of North Prospect. It is at the beginning of Pimiteoui Nature Center Trail, overlooking the Illinois River.||40° 44.818||-089° 34.113||7/1/1951||The Illinois State Historical Society||Meaning 'Fat Lake,' Illinois Indian name for Peoria Lake. Here passed Jolliet and Marquette in 1673. Established near the lake were Ft. Crevecoeur, 1680; Ft. St. Louis, 1691-1692; Old Peoria's Fort and Village, 1730; Peorias, 1778; Ft. Clark, 1813; French Trading House 'Opa Post,' before 1818. Americans settled on the site of the City of Peoria in 1819.|
|Peoria||Susan G. Komen||The marker is located in Peoria near the mausoleum in Parkview Cemetery which is on the northwest corner of North University and West Nebraska.||40° 42.705||-089° 36.920||9/1/2006||Susan G. Komen Foundation and the Illinois State Historical Society||Susan G. Komen wanted to make the world a better place. The active civic leader and kind-hearted daughter, sister, wife and mother of two from Peoria, Illinois, left a legacy she never imagined - her life changed the way the world talks about and treats breast cancer.
Born August 31, 1943, Susan ("Suzy") was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977, a time when little was known or understood about the disease. People didn't say the words "breast cancer" aloud, and many thought it was contagious. On her deathbed, Suzy asked her sister to promise to do everything she could to end breast cancer so that others would not suffer as she did. After nine operations, three courses of chemotherapy and radiation, Suzy lost her three-year battle on August 4, 1980 at the age of 36.
In 1982, to keep her promise, Suzy's sister established the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. The organization was renamed Susan G. Komen for the Cure® in 2007 in observance of its 25th anniversary.
The promise made between two sisters launched the global breast cancer movement, and it has become the promise of millions around the world. Susan G. Komen for the Cure is now the world's largest grassroots network of breast cancer survivors and activists fighting to save lives and end breast cancer forever, and it is the largest source of nonprofit funds dedicated to the fight against breast cancer in the world.
|Peoria||Zion Protestant Episcopal Church||The marker is in Brimfield (about 15 miles northwest of Peoria) one block south of US Rt. 150, at the corner of South Madison and East Van Buren. It is mounted on the exterior wall of the church.||40° 50.268||-089° 52.971||10/15/1951||Illinois State Historical Society||Founded by the Rt. Reverend Philander Chase, first bishop of Illinois, 1845. Restored and rededicated by the Rt. Rev. William L. Essex, Bishop of Quincy, November 4, 1945.|
|Pike||Earl C Smith -- Agricultural Leader||The marker is located in located in Detroit on the north side of IL Route 106, just east of the intersection with IL Route 100.||39° 37.201||-090° 40.292||3/1/2007||The Illinois Farm Bureau, the County Farm Bureaus in Illinois, and the The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the home of distinguished agricultural leader, Earl Clemmons Smith, born in Pike County February 19, 1881. In 1907, Smith began farming his grandmother Clemmons' land at this site. Smith became active in the early national farm bureau movement as farmers organized to strengthen their political clout. He was a charter member and president of the Pike County Farm Bureau. In 1928, Smith was elected president of the Illinois Agricultural Association -- Illinois Farm Bureau -- and served until 1945. Smith concurrently served as vice president of the American Farm Bureau Federation from 1936 to 1945. Nationally, Smith was active in the fight for "Parity for Agriculture," a goal that sought government action to help farmers achieve income levels comparable to those earned from 1910 - 1914, a time of profitability for farmers. Smith's work brought relief to farmers through US President Franklin D Roosevelt's first and second Agricultural Adjustment Acts. Under Smith's leadership, the organization established businesses to help serve farmers: Growmark and the FS member companies, Prairie Farms Dairy, and Country Insurance and Financial Services, which today are among the largest and most successful businesses in Illinois. In retirement, Smith continued to farm in Pike County. He died on June 30, 1961. Earl C. Smith was a clear voice and a steady leader for agriculture -- A pioneer who advanced the philosophy that farmers need to take action to protect their futures and cooperate with others to achieve success. Sponsored by the The Illinois Farm Bureau, the County Farm Bureaus in Illinois, and the The Illinois State Historical Society, November 2006.|
|Pike||Illinois||This Illinois marker is in a small roadside park on Hwy 106 (old Hwy US 36) about 3 miles SE of Hannibal MO.||39° 42.946||-091° 19.048||1978||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of French trader Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette as they explored the Mississipppi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763, when it was surrendered to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution, George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the commonwealth of Virgina, and Illinois became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1874, and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state.
The markers that designate US Highway 36 in Illinois as a 33D Division Memorial Highway were dedicated on Memorial Day 1963. The 33D Division was organized in August, 1917, from National Guard Units of the State of Illinois. It became famous in the Meuse-Argonne offensive and by November 11, 1918, was poised for a breakthrough on the Hindenburg Line. In World War II, the Division fought in the Pacific Area and liberated Baguio, the summer capital of the Phillipines.
US 36 passes through Pittsfield, where John Nicolay and John Hay, President Abraham Lincoln's private secretaries, formed their friendship. Stephen A. Douglas studied law and taught in Winchester, and held his first elective office in Jacksonville. Lincoln's Home, Tomb, and the Old State Capitol are in Springfield, and a courthouse where Lincoln practiced in Mount Pulaski.
|Pike||Mormontown Site||The marker is located on the north side of Route 106, three miles west of Detroit and four miles east of Pittsfield.||39° 36.968||-090° 43.809||11/5/2005||Pike County Historical and Illinois State Historical Society||On February 22, 1839, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, refugees driven from Missouri under the "Extermination Order" of Governor Lilburn Boggs, settled on this site. The property was owned by Thomas Edwards, who later joined the church. Silas Smith, high priest in the church and uncle of Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith, was the leader of these Mormon refugees. The community grew to more than 300 members. Silas Smith died on September 13, 1839, at the age of 58 and was buried here near his home. Smith was succeeded by John Lawton and later by Harlow Redfield, who presided over the congregation until it disbanded in 1845.
In October 1842, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball preached at a church conference held here. The settlement, which later became known as Mormontown, extended on both sides of the road at this location. Cabins were built and wells dug. A schoolhouse and a church were erected on the south side of the road. The cemetery, which measured 60 by 80 feet, fell into disrepair in later years. Gravestones were bulldozed into a ditch and the graveyard plowed over. The church building was relocated to Pittsfield and used as a parish hall by St. Mary's Catholic Church. The pews and pulpit were moved to a church near Pleasant Hill.
|Pike||Welcome to Illinois||The marker is located in a turnout area on the south side of Route 54, west of Atlas, and east of Pike.||39° 28.980||-091° 00.915||1/5/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1673 the areas of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers were explored by Frenchmen Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until 1763 when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain. During the American Revolution, the Illinois Territory was won for the Commonwealth of Virginia by George Rogers Clark and his army. In 1784 it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, 1818 Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. US Route 54 enters Illinois east of Louisiana, Missouri and stretches northeast towards Pittsfield. The route in Illinois was dedicated as the 33rd Division Memorial Highway on Memorial Day 1963. The designation commemorates the WW I Division organized in 1917 from Illinois National Guard units. The Division played an important role in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. In WW II it was used in the Pacific in the Philippines. Route 54 ends its sixteen mile journey in Illinois four miles west of Pittsfield where it meets US Route 36. Pittsfield is the county seat of Pike County. John Nicolay, author of ten-volume biography of Lincoln, began his career in Pittsfield. He met John Hay there and formed a life-long friendship. Hay collaborated on the Lincoln biography and went on to a fruitful career as a diplomat. He was ambassador to great Britain and Secretary of State from 1898-1905. The 'open door' policy with China and the Hay-Paunceforte Treaty were his major accomplishments.|
|Pulaski||Cantonment Wilkinsonville||The marker is located in New Grand Chain, on the east side of IL Route 37, directly below the Joppa County Road.||37° 05.099||-089° 01.473||1935||The State of Illinois||On the Ohio River three miles south of here Cantonment Wilkinson-Ville, named for Gen. James Wilkinson, was established by Lt. Col. David Strong in 1797 as a post of the United States Army. It was garrisoned until 1804. Here are buried Colonel Strong and scores of soldiers who died.|
|Pulaski||Marine Ways, The||The marker is located in Mound City, on the east side of IL Route 37 at its intersection with Fourth Street.||37° 05.018||-089° 10.019||0/0/0000||State of Illinois||During the Civil War the naval depot of the western river fleet was located at Mound City. Here the keels of three of the famous Eads ironclad gunboats were laid, and the large force of workmen were employed to keep the fleet in fighting trim. The marine ways, still in operation, are 400 yards south of here.|
|Pulaski||United States Military Hospital||The marker is located in Mound City, on the north side of IL Route 37 (Main Street) near Central Streets.||37° 05.103||-089° 09.781||4/21/1961||The Illinois State Historical Society||The southern portion of the brick building at the Ohio levee, 150 yards east of here, was part of a large warehouse which was converted into a Military Hospital in 1861 and staffed during the Civil War by the Sisters of the Holy Cross. Following the Battle of Shiloh 2200 Union and Confederate wounded were patients here.|
|Randolph||American Bottom, The||The marker is located on the east side of Route 3, 3.5 miles north of Ellis Grove and approximately 18 miles above Chester at a turn-out area.||38° 03.160||-089° 56.005||7/28/1965||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||A more congenial soil for general cultivation I believe no where exists, it may be called the Elysium of America.' That is how a settler in 1817 described the American Bottom, the lowland between the Mississippi River and the bluffs to the east which stretches from the Wood River to the Kaskaskia. Hundreds of years ago an agricultural people settled in this silt-filled channel of an ancient river and raised crops to feed their large cities. Today many mounds in the area stand as monuments to this early civilazation. The American Bottom served as the center of settlement for the French, the British and finally the Americans in Illinois for over a hundred years. At the height of French activity after 1700 probably no more than 2,000 Frenchmen and Negroes lived in the region but they produced the grain for posts on the Ohio and lower Mississippi, explored the surrounding territory for mineral wealth and established Fort de Chartres. The British took the land form the French in 1763 but their interest in the American Bottom was slight. When Goerge Rogers Clark led his small army to the area in 1778 he captured Kaskaskia and the other villages without striking a blow. Under the Americans, Kaskaskia became the territorial and the first state capitol . Illinois highway maps indicate several parks and memorials between Chester and East St. Louis which will take you back into the intriguing history of the American Bottom.|
|Randolph||Charter Oak School||The marker is located west of Schulinein on I-3 (Evansville Road)||38° 05.364||-089° 47.633||1970||Randolph County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Charter Oak School is said to be the only octagonal one-room brick schoolhouse in Illinois. It was built in 1873, in accordance with a design suggested by Daniel Ling, a teacher of the Charter Oak School District. It served as a school until 1953. The Octagonal shape utilizes daylight and offers wind resistance. The first school in the district was a log building, erected three years after the Illinois Free School Law was passed in 1845. This was succeeded in 1863 by a frame structure, in which Ling taught in 1872-1873.|
|Randolph||Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois||This is one of three identical markers. It is located two miles northeast of Chester in a rest area SE side of IL 150.||37° 56.862||-089° 45.984||7/1/1967||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetry in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855.
Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Briatain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park.
Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the 'Liberty Bell of the West.'
|Randolph||Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois||This is one of three identical markers. It is located two miles south of Ellis Grove in a rest area on the southeast side of IL 3.||7/1/1967||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetry in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Briatain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park. Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the 'Liberty Bell of the West.'|
|Randolph||Chester-Kaskaskia, Illinois||This is one of three identical markers. It is located in Chester Park at the toll gate to the Mississippi River bridge on IL 51 near IL 3.||7/1/1967||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Shadrach Bond, first Governor of Illinois (1818-1822), is buried in Evergreen Cemetry in Chester. The first recorded settler in the area was John McFerron who purchased land in 1817 but Samuel Smith, who settled here in 1830, is considered the founder of Chester. Formerly known as Smith's Landing, the community was renamed after Chester, England. The town was a river port for the export of such local products as castor oil, flour, and meat during the mid-nineteenth century. It became the county seat in 1848 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Kaskaskia, founded in 1703 as a Jesuit mission, became a prominent French village. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763) between France and Briatain, Fort Kaskaskia was erected on the bluffs near the settlement. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Kaskaskia came under British control. On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia settlement and the area became part of Virginia. Kaskaskia served as Illinois Territorial Capitol (1809-1818) and as the first state capitol (1818-1820). When the capitol was moved to Vandalia, Kaskaskia declined in importance. Mississippi floods from 1844 to 1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement, and the area is now Fort Kaskaskia State Park. Sites of interest include the Garrison Hill Cemetery containing a monument to the pioneers; the home of Pierre Menard, first Lieutenant Governor, which is preserved as a State Memorial; and the Kaskaskia State Memorial on Kaskaskia Island containing the 'Liberty Bell of the West.'|
|Randolph||Dr. George Fisher (Gravesite)||The marker is located eight miles below Ruma at Dr. Fisher's gravesite. It is on St. Leo's Road, at the top of the hill from Bluff Road, about 100 yards south of St. Leo's Church.||38° 01.395||-089° 58.715||1934||The Illinois State Historical Society||George Fisher, early Illinois physician, served as sheriff of Randolph County, member of the first House of Representatives of Indiana Territory, Speaker of the House in the first and third Illinois Territorial Assemblies, 1812-1814, 1816-1818), and member of the first Illinois Constitutional Convention (1818). His body lies here.|
|Randolph||Dr. George Fisher (Ruma)||The marker is located on the south edge of Ruma, at the southwest corner of the intersection of IL Route 3 and IL Route 155.||38° 07.905||-089° 59.879||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||Dr. George Fisher, Kaskaskia physician, lived on a farm eight miles west of here from 1806 until his death in 1820. 1801 first sheriff of Randolph County, 1805-1808 member of first and second General Assemblies on Indiana Territory, 1812- 1816 speaker of house in first and third General Assemblies of Illinois Territory, 1818 member of first Constitutional Convention.|
|Randolph||Elias Kent Kane||The marker is located off of Route 3 in Chester's Evergreen Cemetery, near the Governor Shadrach Bond Historical Marker.||37° 55.044||-089° 49.602||1986||VFW Post 3553, American Legion Post 487, the Chester Chamber of Commerce, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Elias Kent Kane, architect of the State's first constitution, was born in New York in 1794. Kane studied law and began his practice in Tennessee. In 1814, he moved to Kaskaskia, where he was appointed a judge of the Illinois territory. Active in politics, in 1818, Kane was a delegate to the first state constitutional convention. He dominated the convention, which framed a constitution that allowed the retention of slavery. Governor Shadrach Bond appointed Kane as the first Secretary of State. A Jacksonian Democrat, Kane was elected to the United States Senate in 1824, where he served until his death in 1835.|
|Randolph||Fort De Chartres-Prairie Du Rocher, Illinois||The marker is locsated off the southwest side of IL 155 in the parking area of Fort de Chatres State Park.||7/1/1967||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||The fertility of the Mississippi bottom lands in this area attracted settlers early in the eighteenth century. The territory was under French rule and in 1718 Pierre Duque, Sieur de Boisbriant, commandant of the Illinois country, was sent to erect a permanent military post. The First Fort de Chartres was completed in 1720. Built of wood and exposed to the Mississippi floods, the fort had to be rebuilt in 1727 and 1732. In 1753 construction of a new fort built of stone and farther inland begun under the direction of Francois Saucier. When it was completed in 1756 it was considered one of the finest forts in North America. The British gained control of the area in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris and in 1765 took possession of the fort which they renamed Fort Cavendish. They destroyed the fort in 1772 when the encroaching Mississippi waters necessitated its abandonment. It had served as the seat of civil and military government in the Illinois country for over half a century. The partially reconstructed fort is a state memorial west on Illinois I55. Prairie du Rocher, the small French village four miles east of the fort, was founded in 1722 by St. Therese Langlois, nephew of Boisbriant. The Prairie du Rocher Common (land used by all the villagers) was granted to the village by the territorial government in 1743 and was used until 1852. Prairie du Rocher, 'Field of the Rock,' remains a picturesque village where French Christmas and New Year's customs are still observed.|
|Randolph||Fort Kaskaskia||IL 3 and Fort Kaskaskia State Park Rd.||1935||State of Illinois||Fort Kaskaskia, a rectangular wooden stockade, was begun in 1734, completed in 1736, and garrisoned at intervals thereafter by French troops. In 1760 it was rebuilt, but in 1764, after the defeat of the French in the French and Indian War, its garrison was withdrawn. Two years later the people of Kaskaskia destroyed the Fort to prevent the English from occupying it. For several years during the period of disorder which followed the American Revolution, John Dodge, a notorious adventurer occupied Fort Kaskaskia and made it headquarters for the tyrannical and illegal rule which he maintained over this region. With Dodge's expulsion and the establishment of stable government in 1790, Fort Kaskaskia was abandoned forever.|
|Randolph||George Rogers Clark Campsite (5th.)||37° 56.938||-089° 29.590|
|Randolph||Governor Shadrach Bond, 1773-1832||The marker is located off of Route 3 in Chester's Evergreen Cemetery near the Governor Bond Memorial.||37° 55.044||-089° 49.602||5/1/1980||Chester Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Shadrach Bond, the first Governor of Illinois, was born November 24, 1773, in Fredericktown, Maryland. He came to Illinois in 1794 and farmed at New Design. In 1805 he was elected to the Indiana Territorial Assembly, where he was instrumental in creating the Illinois and Indiana boundaries. Bond was elected to Congress in 1812 as the first Territorial Delegate from Illinois. He served in both the Twelfth and Thirteenth Congresses. In 1818 Bond was elected Governor. During his term the capitol was moved from Kaskaskia to Vandalia, and a State Banking System was established.|
|Randolph||Home of Pierre Menard||The marker is located in front of the house, which is at 4230 Kaskaskia Street (CR 6), west of Ellis Grove, which is about six miles north of Chester. The house is below the Fort Kaskaskia State Historic Site.||37° 57.845||-089° 54.673||1937||The State of Illinois||This home was built about 1800 by Pierre Menard (1766-1844), presiding officer of the Illinois Territorial Legislature and first Lieutenant Governor. The building is of French Colonial Architecture. The kitchen contains the original fireplace and water basin, and a restored bake oven. The original smokehouse stands at the rear.|
|Randolph||Illinois in the American Revolution||Kaskaskia Island near Liberty Bell Monument and Immaculate Conception Catholic Church||37° 55.304||-089° 54.874||1976||Illinois Bicentennial Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||George Rogers Clark's capture of Kaskaskia in July 1778, doomed British control of the Illinois country. The occupation of Kaskaskia was the first step in Clark's plan to capture the western headquarters of the British control at Detroit. Under authorization from Virginia, Clark raised about 175 troops. They arrived near Kaskaskia during the night of July 4-5, after a grueling two-months journey of more than one thousand miles. Most of the British had been withdrawn, and Kaskaskia fell without gunfire. Clark's victory and the capture of the other frontier posts opened the Illinois country to westward expansion.|
|Randolph||Kaskaskia||37° 58.577||-089° 52.809||1935||The State of Illinois||From 1703 until it was washed away by the Mississippi two centuries later, The ancient town of Kaskaskia-the second settlement in Illinois, the territorial capital and the first state capital- stood two miles southwest of here. Fort Kaskaskia State Park and the Menard Home are memorial to this once prominent village.|
|Randolph||Modoc Rock Shelter||The marker is two miles southeast below Prairie du Rocher on Bluff Road. The marker is on the north side of the road at the base of a huge bluff.||38° 03.762||-090° 03.835||Illinois State Museum and The Illinois State Historical Society||As early as 8000 B.C. prehistoric Indians were camping in the shelter of this great sandstone bluff. These nomadic people, who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food and fibers, came here regularly for more than 6000 years. Later Indian groups, who began to settle in villages, used the rock shelter occasionally when hunting. The pioneers and their descendants contnued to make use of the shelter in historic times.|
|Randolph||Vincennees, Illinois||The marker is located east of Coulterville and immediately east of the Randolph-Perry County line on the south side of Il. Rt. 13 at a former rest area.||38° 10.838||-089° 35.429||1961||Illinois State Historical Society||George Rogers Clark with a small band of Kentucky Militiamen surprised the British Garrison at Kaskaskia on July 4, 1778, and forced its surrender. Learning that the British had captured Vincennes, Clark left Kaskaskia for that post early in February, 1779, and passed this way on his march. On February 25 he retook Vincennes, thereby breaking the British power in the Illinois country.|
|Richland||Lincoln and Douglas in Olney||The marker is located in downtown Olney, on the front lawn of the Richland County Court House, which is on Main Street between Kitchel and Walnut Streets.||38° 43.858||-088° 05.128||1972||Richland County Historical Center and The Illinois State Historical Society||During the Presidential Campaign of 1856 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas spoke at Olney at seperate political rallies held the same day - Saturday, September 20. In the morning Douglas spoke in a grove near town at a Democratic rally for Buchanan and Breckinridge. In the afternoon Lincoln spoke at the courthouse at a Republican rally for Fremont and Dayton. The Republican speakers - Lincoln, Senator Lyman Trumbull, and Ebenezer Peck of Chicago - also attended the Democratic rally. On the previous day they had challenged the Democrats to a debate, but the Democrats were confident of victory and did not accept.|
|Richland||Robert Ridgway and 'Bird Haven'||The marker is located in a turnout on the south side of US 50, about 0.8 mile south of Olney, just east of its intersection with South East Street.||38° 42.953||-088° 04.513||2/20/1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Robert Ridgway, leading American ornithologist, was born at Mount Carmel, Illinois, on July 2, 1850. As a youth he became interested in birds and sketched many specimens around his home. At the age of seventeen, he was appointed zoologist on a geological survey of the Fortieth Parallel. From 1874 to 1929 he was connected with the Smithsonian Institution first as ornithologist and later as Curator of Birds. He was a founder of the American Ornithologists' Union (1883) and published in 1886. He was a member of the National Academy of Science (1926-1929). Ridgway published extensively in his field and related areas from 1869 to 1929. His experience with the problems of color and color description in bird protraits resulted in a work entitled Color Standards and Color Nomenclature which proved valuable in many fields besides ornithology. He also wrote an authoritative eight-volume study of The Birds of North and Middle America published between 1901 and 1919 with two additional volumes in preparation when he died. In 1916 Ridgway retired to Olney to continue his research at his home which he called Larchmound. He developed an eighteen-acre tract nearby called Bird Haven as a bird sanctuary and experimental area for the cultivation of trees and plants not native to the region. He died at Olney on March 25, 1929. Bird Haven with its variety of trees and birds remains as a memorial to this much-honored American ornithologist. It and Dr. Ridgeway's grave are approximately two miles north of here.|
|Richland||Solar Power in Olney, Illinois||The marker is located on the west side of the Olney City Park, just north of the west entrance to the park, off of IL 130.||38° 44.147||-088° 05.660||1986||Native Sun Project, H.E. Jones, and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1902, the first experimental Solar Power Plant was built in Olney, Illinois by H. E. Willsie and John Boyle, two American engineers. Their Solar Power Plant was based on an 1885 design developed by the French engineer Tellier. Between 1892 and 1908 Willsie and Boyle experimented with their low temperature Solar Plants that utilized 'hot boxes' to heat water. Their 'hot box' Solar Power Plant was patented in 1903. The results were published on May 13th 1909 in the issue of Engineering News.|
|Rock Island||Black Hawk War Campsite||The marker is located just south of Hillsdale on Hurd Road. It is mounted on the south railing of the Rock River Bridge||41° 36.153||-090° 10.067||1963||J. M. Hanson, Louis D. Hauberg and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1832 when Black Hawk and his Sauk and Fox followers returned to Illinois, 1500 mounted volunteers advanced along the bank of the Rock River to capture them. 505 men under Colonel Zachary Taylor followed in supply boats and late at night on May 12, 1832 camped in this area.|
|Rock Island||Campbell's Island||The marker is located north of East Moline in the triangle formed by IL 80 and the road leading to Campbell's Island.||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||At Campbell's island, approximately one mile northwest of this point, Indians led by Black Hawk attacked a force of US Regulars and Rangers under Lieutenant John Campbell on July 19, 1814. The Americans were defeated with a loss of sixteen killed.|
|Rock Island||Fort Armstrong||The marker is locsated in Rock Island at the Rock Island Arsenal.||1965||Rock Island County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Fort Armstrong was built in 1816-1817. Its riverside was protected by limestone bluffs and its other sides were formed in part by the rear walls of barracks and storehouses. Blockhouses, like the replica, stood at three corners. The pyramid of cannon balls to the southwest marks the site of the northeastern blockhouse. The fort was garrisoned by United States troops until May 4, 1836. It served as headquarters for the Sauk and Fox Indian Agent from 1836 to 1838 and as a military depot from 1840 to 1845. It was destroyed by fire in 1855.|
|Rock Island||Hero Street U.S.A.||The marker is located one block south of IL 84 (First Avenue) on Hero Street (Second Street) in the town of Silvis.||41° 30.812||-090° 25.474||5/28/1989||City of Silvis and The Illinois State Historical Society||Hero Street, U.S.A. received its name in 1968 to honor the fifty-seven servicemen from thirty-three families on this block-and-a-half who served in defense of America between 1941 and 1968. Six men died in World War II and two in the Korean Conflict. Some families sent as many as six or seven sons; some men served in both wars. At the date of the erection of this marker, over 110 men and women from this small area had served in the United States Armed Services, exemplifying American patriotism at its highest level.|
|Rock Island||Illinois in the American Revolution||Black Hawk State Park, Rock Island||41° 27.836||-090° 34.387||5/16/1976||Illinois Bicentennial Commision and The Illinois State Historical Society||The Sauk Indian Village on the rock River marks the site of the westernmost conflict of the Revolutionary War. In the summer of 1780, an American Force under John Montgomery, with French and Spanish allies, destroyed the village of Saukenuk. Colonel George Rogers Clark had ordered the expedition in retaliation for Indian participation in the British attempt to capture Cahokia and St. Louis. The Sauk rebuilt their village and remained there until 1828 when most of them moved across the Mississippi. Some families, led by the Warrior Black Hawk, made their home there until after the Black Hawk War of 1832.|
|Rock Island||Lincoln and the Black Hawk War||West side of US 67 at Tarvia Rd. south of Milan.||41° 26.573||-090° 34.114||1955||The Illinois State Historical Society||On May 8, 1832, while encamped approximately one mile west of this point, Abraham Lincoln was mustered into the military service of the United States. Captain Lincoln's company was mustered into state service at Beadrdstown April 28. The day before beginning the march to this place by way of Yellow Banks or Oquawka.|
|Rock Island||Rock Island and Rock Island Arsenal||Arsenal Memorial Park||1968||Officer's Wives Club of 1967 and The Illinois State Historical Society||Rock Island, surrounded by the waters of the Mississippi, played a significant part in the opening of the west. The Indians in the area early recognized the strategic advantage of the island and held ceremonial gatherings here. Nearby, at Campbell and Credit Islands, were fought the westernmost campaigns of the War of 1812. Fort Armstrong, at the lower end of Rock Island, was garrisoned from 1816 to 1836, and the Black Hawk War ended here in 1832. Among the troops that served in this vicinity were future presidents Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln. The Island was the home of Indian trader George Davenport. The support of a terminal of the first bridge to cross the Mississippi River rested on the Island. Two weeks after the bridge was opened in 1856, the steamer 'Effie Afton' rammed a pier, setting it afire, and the drawspan was destroyed. Abraham Lincoln represented the railroad interests in the lawsuit that followed. A prison for captured Confederate soldiers was maintained on the Island from 1863 to 1865. Rock Island Arsenal was established here in 1862 as one of three in the Midwest. It has served the nation through all wars and conflicts since 1898. Today, besides being the location of the arsenal, the Island is the site of headquarters, US Army Weapons Command, plus the Arsenal's John M. Browning Museum and several other Federal agencies. It is also the site of one of the world's time capsules.|
|Saline||Carrier Mills Archaeological District||The marker is located just outside the northern city limits of Carrier Mills on the west side of US 45 at a small pull-out area.||37° 41.140||-088° 36.954||1988||Carrier Mills Lions Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||This area of some 143 acres located approximately two miles south of Carrier Mills was inhabited by prehistoric people throughout three different archeological periods. Until the turn of the century, the South Fork of the Saline River was a meandering stream with large area of swamps and shallow cypress lakes nearby. These areas were rich in plants and animals that prehistoric inhabitants sought for food. Therefore, the locality became a natural focal point for human settlement. In 1978 and 1979, archaeologists intensively investigated this area. Excellent preservation conditions permitted the recovery of many tools and animal and plant remains that have provided significant new insights into the prehistory of southern Illinois. Sporadic use of the area by small groups of hunters and gatherers can be dated to 8000 B.C., and the area was used more or less continuously until 1400 A.D. Settlement activity increased dramatically during the late Middle Archaic Period, 4500 to 3000 B.C., when the area was inhabited by larger groups with a more sedentary lifestyle. These occupations produced thick deposits containing many artifacts and buriels. The area also saw heavy use during the Middle and Late Woodland periods, 200 B.C. to 900 A.D. The peoples of those times increasingly emphasized the collection and storage of plant foods and began to domesticate some native plants. The final prehistoric inhabitants were Mississippian Period Indians. (900 to 1400 A.D.), who lived in scattered farmsteads and cultivated corn and squash.|
|Saline||Homestead of Judge Samuel Elder||On IL-142, under the water tower just as you enter town from the west.||37° 48.981||-088° 26.852||1935||Illinois State Historical Society||Here was located the home of Samuel Elder, cofounder of Elder-Redo now called Eldorado. Judge of the county court 1849-1856, school commissioner, collector Internal Revenue, Justice of the Peace, and farmer, He and his son William together with Joseph and William Reed laid out the village of Eldorado August 22, 1857.|
|Saline||Ingersoll Law Office, 1855-1857||The marker is located three quarters of a mile west IL 34 on the main road, Eldorado Road, in Raleigh. It is on the north side of the street, across from the old bank. .||37° 49.639||-088° 31.985||11/20/1954||The Illinois State Historical Society||Two hundred feet east of here was the Ingersoll law office. Ebon Clark Ingersoll and Robert Green Ingersoll, his younger brother, before they moved to Peoria, had a successful law practice in the Saline County Circuit Court which met in Raleigh, the first county seat of Saline County, 1847-1859.|
|Saline||Kaskaskia-Shawneetown and Goshen Trails||The marker is located 1.5 miles east of the intersections of US 45 and IL 142. It is on the north side of the road near the intersection of IL 142 and Moore Road.||37° 47.932||-088° 24.920||1965||The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1816 Congress appropriated $8000 dollars to survey and construct a road from Kaskaskia on the Mississippi to Shawneetown on the Ohio. It became an important east-west thoroughfare for settlers entering the Illinois Territory. At this point the Goshen Trail, which ran from Goshen settlement near Edwardsville to the Salines, near Equality, joined the Kaskaskia-Shawneetown Trail.|
|Saline||Ten Thousand Years in the Saline Valley of Illinois||Carrier Mills Lions Club and the Illinois Department of Department of Transportation||Located approximately 2 miles south of the Carrier Mills Village limits is an area that has been inhabited totalling at least 2,500 years by natives of at least three different archaeological periods. The oldest, the Archaic period, was from 3000 to 4000 B.C. This was followed by inhabitants of the Woodland period which extended from perhaps 500 to 600 B.C. until 900 A.D. This third people who lived in the area are referred to by archaeologists as agriculturists, and lived at the location from approximately 1000 A.D. until 1500A.D. The south fork of the Saline River was the location of thousands of deer, buffalo and antelope. The animals were attracted to the site by their need for salt. Simply by licking the mud banks along the river the need for salt could be met. Tall grass and an abundant water supply made the area an animal paradise. The animals provided food, tools, and clothing for civilization after civilization . The Indian cherished the location where a plentiful supply of food, salt and other necessities could be secured. The site was also enhanced by its location next to a 900 acre glacial lake. Excellent preservation conditions thus permitted the recovery of a wide assortment of artifacts leading to new insights into Middle Archaic life in southern Illinois. Tools fashioned from stone and animal bones provided information about technology employed between 4000 and 3000 B.C. Plant residue and animal remains provided information about diet and food preparation. The recovery of more than 100 skeletons gave new insights on diseases and injuries of the Middle Archaic people. Methods of burial furnish important information as to how the society of the period was organized.|
|Saline||Tobacco Industry, The||The marker is located on the south side of IL 34 on the curve coming into Galatia from the west. It is one half mile west of the downtown area.||37° 50.442||-088° 36.961||1957||The Illinois State Historical Society||From the creation of Saline County in 1847 to the end of the century the production of tobacco was the principal industry. In 1870 Saline County had the highest tobacco production in the state. The Webber Brothers of Galatia and Raleigh were the largest buyers and processors in the county, some years exporting 1,500.000 pounds of tobacco.|
|Sangamon||Abraham Lincoln||The marker is located at the rest area on I-55, southbound lanes, northeast of Springfield. It is just north of the bridge over the Sangamon River.||39° 53.262||-089° 35.829||1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12, 1809. He moved with his family to Indiana in 1816 and to Illinois in 1830. His first home in Illinois was eight miles southwest of Decatur. He later moved alone to New Salem and there he operated a general store and served as Postmaster and Deputy County Surveyor. He served as a Representative in the State Legislature, 1834-1842, and in 1837 was a leader in the effort to move the state government from Vandalia to Springfield. Springfield became the capitol in 1839. In 1836 Lincoln was admitted to the bar, and in 1837 he moved to Springfield and began his law practice. He argued cases in a number of circuit courts, especially those in counties in the Eighth Judicial Circuit. He spent much of his public life at the Old State Capitol in downtown Springfield. In 1842 he married Mary Todd and in 1844 purchased his home at Eighth and Jackson Streets in Springfield. As a Whig, Lincoln was elected a Representative to the United States Congress in 1846. As a Republican he opposed Stephen A. Douglas for the United States Senate in 1858, and the debates between the candidates made Lincoln nationally prominent though Douglas won the race. Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860, and the election of a Republican prompted the southern states to secede from the Union. Lincoln was inaugurated march 4, 1861, and the Civil War began April 12. The original aim of the north was restoration of the Union; after 1862, freeing the slaves became another objective. Lincoln was reelected in 1864. At his second inauguration in 1865 he pled for a conciliatory attitude toward the South. He pursued the war to a successful conclusion, capped by Lee's surrender to Grant on April 9, 1865. Five days later Lincoln was assassinated in Ford's Theatre in Washington. He is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield.|
|Sangamon||Abraham Lincoln and the Talisman||The marker is located at the rest area on I-55, northbound lanes, northeast of Springfield. It is just south of the bridge over the Sangamon River.||39° 51.874||-089° 35.653||1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Prior to the coming of the railroads, Springfield was handicapped by inadequate transportation facilities. Early in 1832, Vincent A. Bogue, Springfield businessman and promoter, planned to supply the Sangamon River region with steamboat service. He chartered the Talisman, a 150-ton upper cabin steamer 136 feet long with a 48 foot beam, and obtained cargo in Cincinnati. On February 5 the journey began down the Ohio River, up the Mississippi to St. Louis, on to the Illinois, up to Beardstown, and via the Sangamon to the Springfield area.
Springfield citizen's were enthusiastic and had raised funds to aid the project. At New Salem, Abraham Lincoln and others joined the axmen who were to clear the Sangamon of obstructions. The Talisman arrived at Beardstown March 9 and, after a 4-day delay due to ice, began the 100-mile trip up the Sangamon. When they arrived at Portland Landing, three fourths of a mile east of here, on March 24 crowds greeted them and continued the celebration in Springfield for several days. Rowan Herndon was hired as pilot and Lincoln as assistant pilot for the return trip to Beardstown. Since the Sangamon was falling rapidly, the steamboat had to be backed partway downstream and at New Salem a section of the dam was removed to float the boat across.
When the boat reached Beardstown, Lincoln received $40 dollars for his services from March13 to April 6 and walked back to New Salem. The Talisman venture was financially unsuccessful and hopes for a river port near Springfield were eventually abandoned.
|Sangamon||Camp Butler||The marker is located on the right side of the entrance to the Camp Butler National Cemetery, northeast of Springfield. It is on Camp Butler Road two miles east of I-55 (Sangamon Avenue Exit 100).||39° 49.910||-089° 33.409||1934||State of Illinois||Camp Butler, Civil War concentration camp for Illinois volunteers, occupied a large area in this vicinity from 1861 to 1866. It was also a prison camp for captured Confederates. Now a national Cemetery, it contains the graves of 1642 Union and Confederate soldiers.|
|Sangamon||Clayville||The marker is located 13 miles northwest of Springfield and one mile east of Pleasant Plains in front of Clayville Tavern on the south side IL 125.||39° 52.001||-089° 53.791||8/1/1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||This building, one of the first brick buildings in Sangamon County, was built in the spring of 1834 by John Broadwell. His father, Moses Broadwell, a native of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, came to Illinois in 1820. He and his son John built a brick kiln and ran a tannery where animal skins were cured at this spot. Several buildings were constructed about 1824; however, the present one is all that remains. Between the 1830's and the early 1850's a stage line ran between Springfield and Beardstown. Tradition indicates that eastern cattle buyers and cattle drovers heading for distant markets as well as teamsters hauling dry goods, liquor, groceries, hardware, and clothing between Beardstown on the Illinois River and Springfield traveled this route. Families of settlers spent the night here before seeking property for themselves. While the original inn burned in the late 1800's, the present brick building, notable in its time, was used to accomodate overflow crowds and it is possible that stage passengers, cattlemen, teamsters, and settlers shared experiences here. The Broadwell's named this area Claysville in honor of Henry Clay, the leading Whig politician and this property was the scene of Whig festivities and poll-raisings. On the 4th of July, 1842, many Whigs met here for a celebration including speeches, music, marching, dining, and drinking. With the coming of the railroad and the rerouting of commerce and travel, Clayville passed into history.|
|Sangamon||Edwards Trace, The||The marker is located in Springfield, adjacent to the parking lot at Lake Park, alongside Lake Springfield. Lake Park is 0.8 miles east of Lindsay Bridge and the Springfield Beach House and 2.7 miles from Spaulding Dam along East Lake Shore Drive. Lake Park is just north, across the road, from the Springfield-Henderson Zoo at 1100 East Lake Shore Drive, Springfield.||39° 43.875||-089° 34.779||9/9/2002||City of Springfield, Sangamon County Historical Society, The Illinois State Historical Society, the Walgreen Company||An important trail in the history of Illinois ran atop this ridge. Called the Edwards Trace, an early word for trail, its use reaches back to antiquity when herds of bison and other large mammals traveled along its path. For millennia, prehistoric people utilized the trail for seasonal migrations, trading, hunting, and waging war. As early as 1711, French priests and trappers began traveling along its path. This overland route offered an alternative to the waterways. From Kaskaskia in the south, the trace passed up through Cahokia and the Edwardsville area and by this point on its way to the Illinois River near present- day Peoria. During the War of 1812, Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards, who later became the state's third governor, led a contingent of 350 rangers to Peoria along its pathway for action against the Kickapoo. As a result, it became known as the Edwards Trace. For early Illinois inhabitants, this was the main land route between southern Illinios and points north. Along its course came many of the pioneers who settled the Sangamon Valley. After Illinois became a state in 1818, this road carried heavy traffic north and south, including a variety of goods and commodities. As a result a depressed path developed, a remnant of which can be seen 25 yards west of this marker.|
|Sangamon||General John A. McClernand, 1812-1900||The marker is mounted on the south side of McClernand School, to the left of the main entrance. The school is on the north side of Enos Street, midway between North Fifth and North Sixth Streets in Springfield.||39° 48.602||-089° 38.904||1979||The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood the residence of John A. Mcclernand. He was born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky but moved with his family to Shawneetown, Illinois in 1816. He studied law an in 1832 was admitted to the bar. He served in the Illinois General Assembly, 1836-1838, 1840-1843 and in Congress, 1843-1851, 1859-1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War he resigned to accept a commission as a Brigadier General in the Union Army. In 1862 he was promoted to Major General. After the war he resumed the practice of Law. He was Circut Judge of ther Sangamon District of Illinois from 1870-1873 and later chaired the 1876 Democratic National Convention. He is buried in Oakridge Cemetery, Here.|
|Sangamon||Hutchinson Cemetery & Springfield High School||The marker is located in Springfield on the front lawn of Springfield High School at 112 Lewis Street, where Adams Street meets Lewis Street a few blocks west of the downtown area.||39° 48.033||-089° 39.586||3/1/2005||Springfield High History Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site in 1843, John Hutchinson, undertaker, cabinetmaker and businessman, established the first private burial ground in Springfield. Located on the western edge of the then-newly-incorporated city, Hutchinson Cemetery operated for several decades and received the remains of more than 700 of Springfield's earliest and most respected citizens, including land developer Pascal P. Enos, Rev. Charles Dresser, and early Springfield merchant Robert Irwin. Edward Baker"Eddie" Lincoln, the three year old son of Abraham and Mary Lincoln was buried here in February 1850. As were many other Springfield children who succumbed to infections and diseases no longer considered life threatening by modern medical standards. The cemetery continued to receive burials through the Civil War, but in 1874 a city ordinance closed Hutchinson. Eventually most of the bodies were exhumed and removed to Oak Ridge Cemetery on Springfield's north side. The Springfield School District acquired the former cemetery lot and constructed the preset and fourth Springfield High School here in 1917. Build in the Beaux Arts style, the school was considered at the time the most modern public educational facility in the state. Most of the original exterior architectural details and mosaics remain intact. Notable graduates include poet Vachel Lindsay; Homer translator Robert Fitzgerald; educator Susan Wilcox; scientist and presidential advisor Dr. J. Lee Westrate; World Bank director E. Patrick Coady; and Medal of Honor winner Brigadier General Edward J. McClernand.|
|Sangamon||Illinois State University/ Concordia Theological Seminary||On Department of Corrections Grounds at the Northern Terminal||10/27/2013||The Central Illinois District of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1852 the family of Pascal Enos donated this ground for an institution of higher learning. Rev. Francis Springer, an educator and Springfield's first Lutheran Minister, led efforts to establish Illinois State University, a college prepatory school, here. An impressive four story facility was completed in 1859. The school offered a classic curriculum and theology classes were offered under Prof. Simeon Harkey. Many citizens of Springfield, including Abraham Lincoln, supported the school with annual subscriptions. Robert Todd Lincoln and John Milton Hay, President Lincoln's future secretary, were students here. Numerous problems plagued the school and attendance never exceeded 140 students. In 1869 the trustees closed the school, although several members of the faculty restablished it in Carthage, Illinois as Carthage College. The properties were sold at Sheriff's Auction and Rev. William Passavant utilized the facility as an orphange for a short time. Eventually the properities were purchased by Trinity Lutheran Church with plans for a Lutheran female college, which never materialized. However, The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod viewed the facilities as a solution for overcrowding at its St. Lous Seminary and in 1875, under the leadership of Prof. August Craemer, Concordia Theological Seminary moved into the abondoned building. The building-renamed Die Laffeemuehle because it resembled a coffee mill-was razed in 1931. However, other buildings were erected, acreage was added and the seminary was eminently successful for 100 years. In 1975 the Missouri-Synod voted to move the seminary to Fort Wayne, Indiana. The campus is now used by the Illinois Department of Corrections.|
|Sangamon||Lincoln Depot, The||The marker is located on the south side of Monroe Street between Ninth and Tenth Streets (railroad tracks) in Springfield. It is on State Journal-Register property, west of the Great Western Depot.||39° 47.957||-089° 38.559||5/1/1967||The Lincoln Depot, Inc. and The Illinois State Historical Society||From this building on February 11, 1861, Abraham Lincoln departed Springfield, Illinois, to assume the presidency of the United States. After bidding farewell to a number of friends, he delivered a brief, spontaneous and moving farewell address to the crowd, estimated at 1,000, from the rear platform of the train.|
|Sangamon||Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices||The marker is mounted on the Lincoln - Herndon Law Offices building on the west side of Sixth Street between Monroe and Adams, facing east, in Springfield.||39° 48.017||-089° 38.879||1991||The Illinois State Historical Society and the Illinois Department of Transportation||This portion of the Tinsley Building, a merchant block constructed in 1840-1841, is the only surviving structure in which Abraham Lincoln maintained a law office. Intended originally for commercial use, much of the building was rented for other purposes. A portion of the first floor was occupied by Springfield's post office, while attorneys rented third-floor offices. Among them was Lincoln, who had offices here with partners Stephen T. Logan (1843-1844) and William H. Herndon (18844-ca. 1850). Here Lincoln also argued cases before the federal courts that met from 1841 to 1855 in a second-floor courtroom.|
|Sangamon||Lindbergh Field (missing)||North of Il 97-125, northwest of Springfield||39° 49.467||-089° 43.244||1968||Springfield Airport Authority and The Illinois State Historical Society||Springfield's first airport, developed by the Chamber of Commerce, was located on this 35-acre tract of land. In April, 1926, Charles A. Lindbergh, chief pilot for Robertson Aircraft, St. Louis, assisted in selecting the field. He flew mail to Springfield on the St. Louis-Chicago route until he began preparing for his solo trans-Atlantic flight of May 20, 1927. On August 15 of that year the field was named in his honor. It was used until 1929.|
|Sangamon||Lithuanians in Springfield||Corner of 7th and Enterprise, just inside the sidewalk in Enos Park, Springfield.||5/19/2012||Lithuanian-American Club of Central Illinois, The Baksys, Chernis, Colantino & Urbanckas Families,; in memory of Marija Jomantiene, Mecys & Antanas Valiukenas, Mary Yamont, Vita & Darius Zemaitis.||Lithuanians arrived en masse during Sangamon County's coal boom. Numbering several thousand with their families by 1920, they fled political and religious repression,conscription, poverty, and a total ban on their language in the czarist Russian Empire. In 1908, at 8th and Enos St., they built their "national" Catholic Church, St. Vincent De Paul's, which for 63 years was a focus of Lithuanian language and identity. In 1917, the church was called the most important "melting pot" in the city with 1,200 Sunday worshipers. Immigration restrictions, coal mine closures, and assimilation all took their toll on local European ethnic groups after 1920. However, the significance of St. Vincent De Paul's only grew when Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 following 22 years of independence. With freedom in the homeland again extinguished, Lithuanian identity abroad assumed a moral imperative. National feeling also was reinforced by a local influx of World War II refugees under the U.S. Displaced Persons Act of 1948, and it persisted decades after St. Vincent's became Springfield's last "national" church to close in 1971. In 1988, a daring "singing revolution" in Lithuania (1987-91) inspired 439 local Lithuanian-Americans to form a new club to celebrate their heritage. Lithuania was restored to independence with the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991.|
|Sangamon||Old State Capitol||The marker is located in Springfield on the northwest corner of Sixth Street and Adams Street. It is located on the grounds of the Old State Capitol State Historic Site.||39° 48.040||-089° 38.883||1991||The Illinois State Historical Society and the Illinois Department of Transportation||The Old State Capitol was the fifth statehouse in Illinois history. The building served as the capitol from 1839 to 1876. Its cornerstone was laid July 4, 1837, five months after the General Assembly passed legislation moving the state capitol from Vandalia to Springfield. The structure is a fine example of the then-popular Greek Revival style.
During the 1840's and 1850's the building dominated the public square and became a center of political and cultural life in Springfield. Dances, benefit dinners, auctions, and other civic affairs took place in its rooms. The legislative chambers, rotunda, and front steps were frequently the scene of politcal rallies and conventions. Concerts, lectures, and other cultural programs often accompanied legislative sessions, during which citizens from throughout Illinois made visits to the capital city.
Abraham Lincoln frequented the building from 1839 unitl he departed in 1861 to assume the presidency. As a lawyer, he practiced before the Illinois Supreme Court and made frequent use of the buildings two libraries. Representatives' Hall was the scene of several important Lincoln speeches, including the 1858 'House Divided' address, which opened his unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate against Stephen A. Douglas. The 'Governor's Room' served as Lincoln's informal campaign headquarters during the 1860 presidential election. In 1865 citizens paid the assassinated President their last respects in Representatives' Hall before final services at Oak Ridge Cemetery.
In 1876, a new statehouse replaced the Old State Capitol, and the building became the Sangamon County Courthouse. Legislation passed in 1961 led to the state's purchase and reconstruction of the building to its Lincoln-era appearance. The tree-year project was completed in 1969, when the building was opened to the public as a state historic site.
|Sangamon||Peter Cartwright||The marker is located on the North side of IL 125 as it intersects with Grant Street in Pleasant Plains .||39° 52.537||-089° 54.933||1934||State of Illinois||Near Pleasant Plains the famous Methodist circuit rider, Peter Cartwright, made his home from 1824 unitl death in 1872. His powerful preaching led many thousands into the church, and made him a dominant figure in the religious life of Illinois for half a century.|
|Sangamon||Reservoir Park and Lanphier High School||The marker is located in Springfield on the east side of 11th Street midway between North Grand Avenue and Converse Street on the front lawn of Lanphier High School.||39° 49.045||-089° 38.417||5/22/2007||The Lanphier High School Yearbook Staff 1994-2007, Deborah Sidener, Adviser, and the The Illinois State Historical Society.||The site where Lanphier High School now stands was once known as Reservoir Park. Constructed in the 1870's, Reservoir Park was a popular recreation spot that integrated a lagoon and huge reservoir, which served as the City of Springfield's water supply. In 1935, the Springfield School District purchased the property and, with funding from the WPA, removed the reservoir's walls and filled in the lagoon. The District built Lanphier High School on this site in 1936. The School featured the latest in educational facilities and state-of-the-art equipment. Students represented a variety of ethnic groups, families who came to Springfield to work on the railroads, in nearby coal mines, and in local industries such as Pillsbury Mills. The Illinois Watch Factory, and Sangamo Electric Company. Robert C. Lanphier, for which the School is named, was founder and president of Sangamo Electric Company, a factory located immediately to the west of the School. Sangamo produced electric meters and sonar equipment, and was one of the city's major employers for more than 50 years. Lanphier's grandfather, Charles Lanphier, was publisher of the Illinois State Register, as well as a political foe of Abraham Lincoln. Located directly to the east of the high school is Memorial Field, the City's football and track arena, and Springfield's public baseball stadium, named for Lanphier High graduate and baseball Hall of Famer Robin Roberts. Sponsored by the Lan-Hi Yearbook staffs, 1994-2007, Deborah Sidener, adviser, and the Illinois State Historical Society, April 2007.|
|Sangamon||Robert Stuart Fitzgerald Boyhood Home||The marker is located in Springfield, Illinois, near the corner of Second Street and Jackson Street, in front of the Illinois State Bar Association.||39° 47.829||-089° 39.188||10/12/2010||Springfield High School, The Vachel Lindsay Association, Illinois State Bar Association, and The Illinois State Historical Society||Poet, translator, writer, educator, Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (1910-1985) lived in his family's home on this site (215 E. Jackson) for 20 years. While a student at Springfield High School, his talent for poetry came to the attention of poet Vachel Lindsay, who lived just three blocks away. Fitzgerald was the author of three books of poems. His translations of Homer's Odyssey and Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid remain standard works for American scholars and students, and his other memoirs and writings have enduring value. From 1965-1981 he was Boylston Professor at Harvard. He was a close friend of James Agee, Flannery O'connor, William Maxwell, and other significant writers of his generation. Among his many honors were election to the American Institute of Arts and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In the last year of his life he was named Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, a position later renamed Poet Laureate of the United States.|
|Schuyler||Abraham Lincoln's Teacher||The marker is located on the northeast corner of the intersection of IL 101 and Huntsville Road, two miles above Huntsville and just east of Weinberg King State Park. The marker is halfway between Brooklyn and Augusta.||40° 13.512||-090° 51.624||1952||The Illinois State Historical Society||Azel Waters Dorsey, 1784-1858, teacher of Abraham Lincoln, is buried on the King farm one mile south of Huntsville. Dorsey taught a 'blab School' in Spencer County, Indiana, which young Lincoln attended for six months in 1824. He moved to Schuyler County, Illinois, in 1828 where he taught school.|
|Schuyler||Base Line Survey, The||The marker is located in a pull-out area on US 67, northwest of Beardstown, 2.2 miles northwest of the intersection of US 67 and IL 103.||40° 03.038||-090° 29.300||1977||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Nearby is one of two sites in Illinois that serve as the basis for all land surveys in the state. Just northwest of Beardstown, where the 4th Principal Meridian interesects its base line.
Originally, land was measured by 'Metes and Bounds,' With known landmarks as points of reference. Boundary lines were compass lines or natural boundaries such as streams. This system proved unsatisfactory since landmarks are changeable and compass lines can vary. In May, 1785, Congress adopted the "Rectangular System" of land measurement. In each state or group of states one or more north-south principal meridians and one or more east-west base lines on parallels of latitude are established at right angles to one another. These lines are determined by astronomical observation and numbered. The 3rd and 4th Principal Meridians intersect their respective base lines in Illinois and govern all land measurements in the state.
Parallel lines are calculated at six mile intervals east and west through each principal meridian's territory. These divisions, called ranges, are consecutively numbered in each direction from the meridian. Similar lines parallel to the base line mark divisions called townships. The six mile squares created by the interesecting lines form government townships.
The number and direction of the township and range lines, such as Range 2 West, Township 3 North, locate any township in relation to its principal meridian. Government townships are broken down into 36 numbered sections containing 640 acres. Acres form the basis of most property identification.
|Schuyler||Scripps Family, The||The marker is located in Rushville, in Scripps Park, which is on US 24, 100 yards west of the intersection with US 67. The marker is in the extreme west part of Scripps Park next to the Virginian Clubhouse.||40° 06.996||-090° 34.715||9/4/1977||Scripps Bicentennial Landscaping Committee and The Illinois State Historical Society||This site was the homestead of the Scripps Family - pioneer journalists and philanthropists. John Scripps (1785-1868), a Methodist circuit rider, settled here in 1831. In 1849 he began publishing the Prairie Telegraph, now the Rushville Times. His nephew, John Locke Scripps (1818-1868) co-founded the Chicago Tribune and wrote the first birography of Abraham Lincoln. A great nephew, Edward Wyllis Scripps (1854-1926), founded United Press and the first newspaper chain in the United States - Scripps Howard. An older brother, James Edmund Scripps (1835-1906), founded the Detroit Evening News; and their sister, Ellen Browning Scripps (1836-1932), pioneered the concept of the feature article in journalism.|
|Scott||Lincoln in Winchester||Central Park, Winchester, Illinois||8/24/2013||Hardt Pioneer Farms, Inc. Ivan and Doris Hardt.||Here in the Scott County courtroom in Winchester, August 26, 1854, Abraham Lincoln gave his first public speech against the Nebraska Bill. Because it allowed expansion of slavery, Lincoln became so politically "aroused" that he came out of five years of political retirement to defeat it. Drafted by Senator Stephen A. Douglas and coined "Popular Sovereignty," the Nebraska Bill gave new territories and emerging states the right to choose by popular ballot if slavery was to be permitted or banned. The bill effectvely cancelled the Missouri compromise, which during the previous 30 years had allowed limited expansion of slavery in the nation. By re-entering politics, his anti-Nebraska speeches and historical 1858 debates with Stephen A. Douglas gained him much political recognition nationally. Although he failed twice to be elected U.S. Senator he was elected in 1860 as the 16th President of United States. War came to the nation, and in 1863, he signed the Emancipation Proclamations, a document that set5 the stage for the end of slavery in America. Lincoln's signing of the 13th Amendment in 1865 made the Nebraska Bill moot, and set 4 million African-American slaves free. Lincoln surely concluded his "masterly effort" that day in Winchester with a very profound prediction about the Union, one he repeated later in Peoria. "We shall have so saved it (from slavery), that the millions of free happy people, the world over, shall rise up, and call us blessed to the latest generation."|
|Shelby||Moweaqua Coal Mine Disaster||The marker is located on the grounds of the Pogenpohl Ready-Mix Plant, which is in the extreme southwest part of Mowequa, just east of the railroad tracks. It is on Cherry Street, west of Old US 51.||39° 37.329||-089° 01.313||10/15/1990||The Moweaqua Cola Mine Museum and The Illinois State Historical Society||This is the site of the Moweaqua Coal Mine Disaster which on December 24, 1932, took the lives of all 54 miners entering the mine that day. The Moweaqua Coal Mine was Shelby County's largest. The explosion which occurred at 8 a.m., due to an unprecedented drop in barometric presssure, allowed methane gas to escape into the mine. The gas was ignited by open flame carbide lights. Efforts of rescue teams searching for survivors were in vain, although all bodies were recovered. This marked the end of the era of open flame carbide lights.|
|Shelby||Thompson Mill Bridge||The marker is mounted on the north end of the covered bridge across the Kaskaskia River. It is 3.2 miles northeast of Cowden. Turn east off of IL 128. Go 2.5 miles, and signs point the way to the bridge.||39° 15.537||-088° 49.092||1972||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||The road on which this bridge is located was once an important route between Springfield and Effingham. The bridge was completed in the autumn of 1868 at a cost of $2,500 and named for the owner of the first mill near here. It is the narrowest of all the covered bridges in Illinois, with a width of only 10 feet7inches. It is 11 feet 4 inches high and the siding stops before reaching the top cord to allow light to come in under the roof. The Howe Truss system, which the bridge uses, consists of panels in which two members cross one diagonal. The truss of this bridge is 105 feet long. The roof of the bridge protected the truss from weather.|
|St. Clair||Cahokia Mounds||US alt. 40 near Cahokia Mounds State Park (missing)||1934||State of Illinois||The Cahokia Mounds represent the most extensive prehistoric Indian remains in the United States. Eighty-five mounds are included in the group, which covers an area of 2000 acres. The site of successive Indian villages for centuries, these mounds are believed to have been built between 450 and 750 years ago.|
|St. Clair||Cahokia, Illinois||Missing||38° 34.243||-090° 11.303||1953||State of Illinois||Here, in 1699, priests of the Seminary of Quebec founded the Mission of the Holy Family. Around it developed the village of Cahokia, the first permanent white settlement in Illinois. For more than a century Cahokia prospered, but about 1815 decline commenced, and the village gradually yielded its ancient importance.|
|St. Clair||Cahokia, Illinois||The marker is located in a small park at the intersection of IL 3 and IL 157 in the south part of the City of Cahokia. It is across the street from the historic Church of the Holy Family.||38° 34.243||-090° 11.303||1978||Illinois Department of Transportation and the Illinois State Historical Society||Cahokia, the first permanent European settlement in Illinois, was established in 1669 by priests from the French Seminary of Foreign Missions in Quebec. In 1698, a mission party -- guided here by the famous explorer Henri DeTonti -- selected a site for the Mission of the Holy Family that was adjacent to a village of Tamaroa and Cahokia Indians.
A typical French village gradually grew up around the mission. Its population, always small, was affected by the establishment of Kaskaskia and Fort DeChartres and by the cession of the land to the British in 1765 after the French and Indian War. In 1790, Cahokia became the seat of St. Clair County, a huge territory which then included the eighty northernmost counties of Illinois. Cahokia did not long retain her important position, however, because of recurring floods of the Mississippi and the growing importance of St. Louis and East St. Louis. The county seat was removed to Belleville in 1814. Both the village and the Cahokia Mounds, several miles to the northeast, were named for a subgroup of the Illinois Indian Tribe.
The famous Chief Pontiac was assassinated near the village of Cahokia in 1769. George Rogers Clark negotiated here for Indian neutrality during the American Revolution. Landmarks such as the old Church of the Holy Family, the Old Cahokia Cemetery, the Cahokia Courthouse and the Jerrot Mansion represent Cahokia's proud past. Erected by the Department of Transportation and the Illinois State Historical Society, 1978.
|St. Clair||Death of Pontiac||The marker is located on the east side of IL 3 beside the Cahokia marker. (missing)||1953||State of Illinois||In Cahokia, Pontiac, the Ottawa chief who organized the Indian conspiracy which struck terror along the frontier from 1763 to 1765, met his death in the early spring of 1769. He was assassinated by a Peoria Indian after a drunken debauch.|
|St. Clair||Deneen Family, The||The marker is located in the front yard of a home at 303 North Stanton Street in Lebanon, about six blocks west of IL 4. Stanton Street lies along the west edge of McKendree College.||38° 36.366||-089° 49.041||12/5/1966||Lebanon Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site stood the home of the Deneen family long associated with the history of McKendree College -- Rev. William L. Deneen; Professor Samuel H. Deneen; and Charles S. Deneen, Governor of Illinois, 1905-1913, and US Senator, 1925-1931. They were three generations of outstanding McKendree alumni.|
|St. Clair||French-Colonial Home Site of Jean Baptiste Hamelin||The Cahokia Wedge, across from the Jarrot Mansion and at the intersection of Route 3 and Camp Jacson/Hwy 157||7/4/2013||National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, Save Illinois History Foundation, The Hamelin Family of Kansas City, Missouri and the Illinois State Historical Society||We honor Captain Jean Baptiste Hamelin and the citizens of Cahokia for their sacrifice, and the role they played in the American Revolutionary War. In the latter days of the Revolutionary War, both American and British had ambitions to control the Mississippi River transportation route. In May 1780, the British attacked all the Mississippi river towns, including Cahokia. In retaliation, Captain Jean Baptiste Hamelin lead a group of Cahokians against the British Fort St. Joseph in Michigan. Hamelin's forces captured the British traders and trade goods and headed for home. A party of British caught up with them on December 5,1780. Hamelin's forces suffered casulties and some were taken prisoner; others escaped back to Cahokia. Captain J.B. Hamelin lost his life fighting for the fledgling American Country. Jean Baptisste Hamelin was from a prominent French-Canadian family who had arrived in Canada in the 17th century. His forebears were Seigneurs in Grondines, Quebec. Severel generations of Hamelilns became fur traders and voyaguers and had deep ancestral roots in Michilimackinac, MI and Cahokia. J.B Hamelin served in the Second Canadian Regiment of the Continental Army, until he was recruited to serve with George Rogers Clark in Cahokia in 1779. The Hamelin home site was discovered and excavated by the Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program (ITARP) in the spring of 2007. The home site was occupied around 1760-1780, and included period 'Poteaux En Terre' (post-in-ground) structures indentified as a dwelling, barn and outbuildings.|
|St. Clair||Gustavus Koerner||200 Abend St., Belleville||38° 30.700||-089° 58.657||1976||St. Clair Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Gustavus Koerner came to Belleville from Germany in 1833. He took a law degree from the University of Heidleberg in 1832. Shortly after, he was arrested during a political demonstration. He escaped and joined a party of emigrants. In Illinois his legal reputation led to his appointment to the State Supremem Court in 1845. He also served in the Legislature, 1842-44, and as Lieutenant Governor, 1853-57. In 1860 he helped write the strong antislavery Republican platform. He served as staff officer during the Civil War and raised an all German regiment. In 1862 President Lincoln appointed him Minister to Spain.|
|St. Clair||Illinois in the American Revolution||The marker is located in a small park at the intersection of IL 3 and IL 157 on the south side of Cahokia. It is close to IL 3.||38° 34.258||-090° 11.353||7/3/1976||Illinois Bicentennial Commission and The Illinois State Historical Society||George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia on the night of July 4-5, 1778, and then sent a small company under Captain Joseph Bowman northward to Cahokia. Bowman met no resistance from the French settlers along the way, and took possession of Cahokia on July 6. The people there supported the American cause and raised a militia company to join Clark on his march to Vincennes. Clark later, under the authority of Virginia, established an administrative court at Cahokia and Bowman was elected magistrate.|
|St. Clair||John Mason Peck (missing)||North side of US 50, 2.2 miles east of O'Fallon (missing)||38° 35.325||-089° 51.947||4/7/1965||The Illinois State Historical Society||On this site, from 1822 until his death in 1858, lived John Mason Peck, a pioneer baptist preacher, author and educator. Here, in 1827, he founded Rock Spring Seminary. In 1831 the seminary was removed to Alton, where it later became Shurtleff College.|
|St. Clair||John Messinger, 1771-1846||The marker is located approximately three miles northeast of Belleville, on Old Collinsville Road on the right side of the entrance to the Messinger Cemetery. The Cemetery is at 3450 North Old Collinsville Road, 1.5 miles north of Lebanon Road.||38° 32.962||-089° 57.968||7/12/1981||St. Clair County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||John Messinger received a formal education in New England before settling on the Illinois frontier in 1802. After serving as St. Clair county surveyor, he was appointed Deputy United States Surveyor and platted much of the government land between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. In 1835 he produced the first map of Illinois based on the official United States Survey.
When Illinois was part of the Indiana territory, Messinger served in the territorial legislature. In 1818 he assisted in writing the constitution for the new State of Illinois and was elected the First Speaker in the House of Representatives.
|St. Clair||McKendree College||The marker is located in Lebanon, on the northeast corner of the intersection of US 50 and IL 4.||38° 36.238||-089° 48.445||1978||Lebanon Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Founded in 1828, this is one of the first colleges established in Illinois and is the oldest in the United States with continuous relationship to the Methodist Church. The school was first named Lebanon Seminary. At the urging of Rev. Peter Cartwright, the famous circuit-rider, the name was changed in 1830 to honor Bishop William McKendree. His donation of 480 acres helped create this school. Edward Ames was the first principal of the seminary. Peter Akers succeeded him as the first President. 'Old Main' (1850) and the Chapel (1856) on campus are well-known landmarks in Illinois.|
|St. Clair||Mississippi Bubble, The||The marker is located in a pull-out area on the north side of IL Route 15, midway between Freeburg and Fayetteville.||38° 24.156||-089° 51.453||7/5/1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||They related that there are mines of gold and silver...There is reason to believe that the French who will settle among the Illinois Indians will make all these rich discoveries when the colony becomes more thickly populated.' Thus, John Law, Scot adventurer and gambler, inflated the 'Mississippi Bubble' in the fall of 1717. He had convinced the Duke of Orleans, regent for Louis XV, that paper money issued by a national bank and backed by a vast trading and colonizing enterprise would bring new life to the French economy. As part of the scheme, on January 1, 1718, the Company of the West received a 25-year charter to trade, settle and govern in the Mississippi Valley. Speculation in the shares ran wild as Frenchman of all classes engaged in the fantasy before the bubble burst in 1720 and left many investors bankrupt.
Law's vision of the development of the region required more time and money than he had. Exaggerated accounts attracted some colonists; force brought others. As the operations of the Company in lower Louisiana expanded, the district of Illinois profited. Several French villages sprang up in the American Bottom south of here and mining expeditions searched for the fabled minerals. The real wealth in Illinois, however, was the fur trade and the agricultural produce which sustained the other French posts. The Company struggled along until Indian warfare and inadequate financial returns forced the surrender of its charter in 1731.
|St. Clair||Pensoneau-Caillot Pioneer House||The marker is located in the eastern side of East St. Louis in an area south of I-64 and east of I-255, in a large yard in front of 8105-07 Church Street, on the north side of the street.||38° 36.019||-090° 03.731||1965||Katherine and Frank Wynn Seineke and The Illinois State Historical Society||Located in the heart of Petit Village Francois, this house was built by Laurent Etienne Pensoneau in 1818. He was the son of Etienne Pensoneau who built the first official St. Clair County Courthouse in 1817. Laurent's bride was a descendant of Jean Baptiste Saucier, the designer of the second Fort de Chartres.|
|Stephenson||Cedarville - Birthplace of Jane Adams||The marker is located in the middle of Cedarville in a park on the east side of IL 26 .||42° 22.531||-089° 37.977||1951||The Illinois State Historical Society||Birthplace of Jane Addams 1860-1935. Humanitarian, Feminist, Social Worker, Reformer, Educator, Author, Publicist. Founder of Hull House, Pioneer Settlement Center, Chicago, 1889. President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Nobel Peace Prize, 1931.|
|Stephenson||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||The marker is located in Freeport, on the northwest corner of Galena (IL Bus 20) and West Avenue (IL 26) in a small park-like setting. There were originally five Lincoln-Douglas Debate markers in Freeport (formerly located on IL 26 south, IL Bus 20 northwest, IL Bus 20 southwest, IL 75, and northeast of Freeport, but the current locations of the others are unknown).||42° 18.131||-089° 37.492||1958||Lincoln-Douglas Society of Freeport and The Illinois State Historical Society||On August 27, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, on a platform erected near State and Douglas Streets, met in the second of their seven joint debates. Douglas' answer to Lincoln's 'Freeport Question' helped win the Senatorial race, but was fatal to his Presidential prospects two years later.|
|Stephenson||Second Joint Appearance of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas||The marker is located east of Freeport on the west side of the parking lot for the Stephenson County Welcome Center at 4596 US 20 East.||42° 16.570||-089° 31.236|
|Tazewell||Fort De Crevecoeur||The marker is located on IL 29 at its intersection with Park Road.||1935||State of Illinois||Overlooking the Illinois River one quarter mile to the west, LaSalle and Tonti erected Fort de Crevecoeur, the first public building in Illinois. Built early in 1680, Fort de Crevecoeur was damaged by its mutinous garrison in April of that year and was never rebuilt. The site is now a state park.|
|Tazewell||Steamboat Columbia Disaster, The||The marker is located is located in Pekin, under the IL 29 bridge crossing the Illinois River, on the west side of Gene Miller Park, facing the river.||40° 34.319||-089° 39.144||7/5/2003||Tazewell County Historical Places Society and the Illinois State Historical Society||On July 5, 1918, the steamboat Columbia sank upstream from this spot near what was then Wesley City. What began as one of the season's premier social events ended in tragedy. The Pekin South Side Social Club sponsored the ornate sternwheeler's ill-fated voyage. Beginning in Kingston Mines, some 500 passengers boarded it for a trip to Al Fresco Amusement Park in Peoria. On the return trip, as festivities were in full swing, a hole was torn in the Columbia's hull and it sank. The deceased were brought to this riverfront for identification. Of the 87 who died, 57 were from Pekin.|
|Tazewell||Tremont Courthouse, 1839-1850||The marker is located in Tremont, five blocks south of IL 9 at 104 East Washington Street (southeast corner of Washington and Broadway).||40° 31.320||-089° 29.407||1956||The Illinois State Historical Society||Abraham Lincoln attended Court in the fine two story rectangular brick courthouse with four Grecian Columns and copper dome on this site. Here in 1842 he was challenged to a duel by James Shields. Lincoln last spoke here August 30, 1858.|
|Tazewell||Union League of America||The marker is located in downtown Pekin, mounted on a wall, facing east at the northwest corner of Capital and Court Streets (300 block of Capital Street).||40° 34.206||-089° 38.903||1975||Union League Club of Chicago and The Illinois State Historical Society||On June 25, 1862, the Union League of America was founded at Pekin, Illinois, to promote patriotism and loyalty to the Union. Its members hoped to counter Northern disillusionment with President Lincoln's military policies after early Union defeat in the Civil War. Although closely allied with the Republican Party, the League sought to enroll all Union supporters, regardless of party. the league developed into a statewide and then a national organization. By December, 1863, it claimed 140,000 members in Illinois and almost a million nationwide. After the War, the League councils in the south were concerned with franchising the Negro and working for their education.|
|Union||Anna-Jonesboro||The marker is located in a pull-out area west of Jonesboro on the south side of IL 146.||37° 27.413||-089° 19.574||1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||Union County was created on January 2, 1818, by an act of the Territory of Illinois. Two months later, on March 2, 1818, the County Commissioners' Court established Jonesboro on land donated by John and Juliet Grammar to serve as county seat. In the 1850's it was decided that the Illinois Central would run through this area. To insure that the railroad would go through the town, Jonesboro was to have a survey made for the railroad. It is said that when the town failed to meet this request, Winstead Davie of Jonesboro submitted a survey routing the railroad through his property east of Jonesboro. A town was established by the railroad and Davie named it Anna in honor of his wife on March 3, 1854. Jonesboro was the site of the third of the seven Lincoln-Douglas Debates on September 15, 1858. Lincoln received a quiet welcome upon his arrival and spent the night before the debate as a guest of D.L. Phillips of Anna. The otherwise uneventful evening was enlivened by the appearance of Donati's Comet. Douglas's arrival was better received than Lincoln's, however, the debate was attended by less than 1500 unenthusiastic people -- the smallest crowd of the series -- and neither man gained ground. Anna served as one of the nine rendezvous points in Illinois for troops during the Civil War and eight regiments were assembled here. In 1869 the legislature determined to locate the Southern Illinois Hospital for the Insane at Anna. It is now Anna State Hospital.|
|Union||Cherokee Camp||This is one of two identical markers. It is located east of Ware on IL 46, east of Dutch Creek Bridge.||1935||State of Illinois||During January, 1839, thousands of Cherokee Indians enroute from Georgia to Indian Territory and unable to cross the Mississippi because of floating ice, camped along the Dutch Creek in this vicinity. Unprepared for the intense cold, nearly 2000 of the 13,000 Indians who started lost their lives during the journey.|
|Union||Cherokee Camp||This is one of two identical markers. It was located on the south side of IL 146, east of Dutch Creek Bridge. (missing)||1935||State of Illinois||During January, 1839, thousands of Cherokee Indians enroute from Georgia to Indian Territory and unable to cross the Mississippi because of floating ice, camped along the Dutch Creek in this vicinity. Unprepared for the intense cold, nearly 2000 of the 13,000 Indians who started lost their lives during the journey.|
|Union||Lincoln-Douglas Debate||The marker is located in the center of Jonesboro, on the west side of a circular turn-around on IL 146, where IL 127 turns south.||37° 27.084||-089° 16.114||1935||State of Illinois||On September 15, 1858, in the midst of the senatorial campaign of that year, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas met at Jonesboro in the third of the famous series of debates which made Lincoln a national figure. The debate was held in a grove one quarter-mile to the north.|
|Warren||Founding of Pi Beta Phi Fraternity||The marker is located in Monmouth on the grounds of the Holt House which is at 402 East First Avenue where it intersects with South Third Street.||40° 54.661||-090° 38.659||2009||PI BETA OHI Fraternity and the Illinois State Historical Society||
The fraternity's 1940 Convention voted to preserve the home as a memorial to its founders. The renovated Holt House opened on April 26, 1941.
|Warren||Wyatt Earp Birthplace||The marker is located in the Monmouth City Park in the north east part of the city, north of IL 164, and between the airport and the Gibson Woods Golf Course.||40° 55.681||-090° 37.744||1994||Wyatt Earp Birthplace and the Illinois State Historical Society||Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp, famous for the 1881 gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, was born on March 19, 1848, in Monmouth. According to family history, his birthplace is located at 406 south 3rd Street. When Earp was two, his family moved to Pella, Iowa. In 1856 they returned to Monmouth for a three year stay and returned again in 1868. Earp is internationally known as a deputy U.S. Marshall in early American history. Earp was a lawman in Missouri, Kansas, Arizona, Idaho and Alaska. Wyatt Earp died in Los Angeles on January 13, 1929 and is buried in Colma, California.|
|Washington||Illinois Agricultural College||The marker is located in the town of Irvington, in the City Park, two blocks north of Illinois 177, facing Parkview Street.||38° 26.445||-089° 09.662||1975||Washington County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Illinois agricultural College at Irvington was the first college in the State for instruction in scientific and practical agricultural methods. It was chartered by the Illinois General Assembly in 1861 and opened in 1866. The main buildings were southwest of here on 560 acres of farm land. Almost from its beginning, the school encountered financial difficulties. In 1887 title to the college and land was vested the State of Illinois. The property was sold and the proceeds given to Southern Illinois Normal University, Irvington College and the Hudelson Baptist Orphanage, 1907-1936, later occupied the campus.|
|White||Big Prairie Church - Established 1812||The marker is located one mile south of Epworth, which is just east of Carmi, in front of the Big Prairie Methodist Church.||38° 02.973||-088° 06.406||1967||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This church was the cradle of Methodism in White County. Early pioneers risked Indian raids to worship in the cabins of Robert Land and John Hanna. In 1812 presiding elder Peter Cartwright sent circuit rider John Smith to this settlement. This church was organized in Hanna's house.|
|White||Carmi's Oldest House||The marker is located in Carmi, on the south side of Cross Street, just east of Main Street.||38° 05.415||-088° 09.502||1/5/1966||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This house was built by early settler John Craw prior to 1817. In 1835 it was purchased by John M. Robinson, U.S. Senator (1831-43) and Illinois Supreme Court Justice (1843). The house was later occupied by his daughter Mrs. Robert Stewart and his granddaughter Miss Mary Jane Stewart.|
|White||Carmi, Illinois||There are three identical markers. This marker is located five miles west of Carmi on private property on the south side of US 460.||8/1/1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abrahanm Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assasin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.|
|White||Carmi, Illinois||There are three identical markers. This marker is located in Carmi on private property on the east side of IL 1, on the south edge of town.||8/1/1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abrahanm Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assasin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.|
|White||Carmi, Illinois||There are three identical markers. This marker is located two miles north of Carmi on the east side of IL 1.||8/1/1967||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||On December 9, 1815, the General Assembly of the Illinois Territory created White County out of the northern section of Gallatin County. Settlers had been in the area for almost a decade before Carmi was platted as the seat of the new county in 1816 when captain Leonard White, veteran of the War of 1812 for whom the county was named, James Ratcliff, Daniel Hay and White were joint proprietors of Carmi, and Hay selected for the community the name which can be traced back to the Biblical character who was a son of Reuben, nephew of Joseph, and grandson of Jacob. The residence of John Craw served as White County's first courthouse. It later became the home of John M. Robinson (1794-1843), who served as US Senator from Illinois (1831-1843) and was a justice on the Illinois Supreme Court (1843). Carmi was also the home of four members of the US House of Representatives: Colonel John M. Crebs (1868-1873), James Robert Williams (1889-1895, 1899-1905), Orlando Burrell (1895-1897), and Roy Clippinger (1945-1949). Other sites of historical interest in Carmi include the Ratcliff Inn, where Abrahanm Lincoln stayed in 1840 while campaigning for Whig presidential candidate William Henry Harrison and which was restored in 1960 by the White County Historical Society, and the house built in 1871 by Colonel Everton J. Conger, commander of the troops which captured John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assasin. Historical markers have been erected on these sites.|
|White||Colonel Conger House||The marker is located in Carmi, at 302 West Main Street, which is on the northwest side of the street.||38° 05.275||-088° 09.882||1/5/1966||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Colonel Everton J. Conger, who commanded the troops capturing Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth, built this house in 1871. He practiced law in Carmi, became a Federal Judge in Montana Territory, and later moved to Hawaii where he was an advisor to Queen Liliuokalani. The house was remodeled in 1841.|
|White||First Presbyterian Church in Illinois||The marker is located on the east side of US 45.about halfway between Enfield and Norris City.||38° 02.173||-088° 20.255||1964||United Presbyterian Church in the USA and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1816 the Reverend James McGready of Kentucky organized Sharon, the first Presbyterian Church in Illinois, with Peter Miller, James Mayes, and James Rutledge as ruling elders. Three miles north-east of this site B. F. Spilman, active Presbyterian Church organizer, was ordained in 1824; .5 mile east is the present building and the 1817 cemetery.|
|White||Flow Gently, Sweet Afton||The marker is located in Carmi, at 312 South First Street.||38° 05.452||-088° 09.733||1/5/1966||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||The music for this song was composed by Jonathon Edwards Spilman in 1836. He entered the ministry in 1858 and became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in 1881. This church had been organized by his brother Benjamin F. Spilman on November 25, 1827, and was the first church in Carmi.This mill, started in 1833 by Andrew Smith, was continued by his descendants, the Morrison family, until 1964. The flint mill stones, imported from France, had been grinding corn since 1859. The town, named Liberty by Scotch pioneers who settled here around 1816, was later renamed Burnt Prairie.|
|White||Liberty's Pioneer Mill||The marker is located in the small hamlet of Burnt Prairie, which is on a county road just below I-64, right below the Wayne/White County Line, and 4.5 miles east of Mill Shoals. The marker is two blocks north of the Main Road through the town, on Second Street, on the grounds of Historic Morrison Mill.||38° 15.122||-088° 15.504||1967||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This mill, started in 1833 by Andrew Smith, was continued by his descendants, the Morrison family, until 1964. The flint mill stones, imported from France, had been grinding corn since 1859. The town, named Liberty by Scotch pioneers who settled here around 1816, was later renamed Burnt Prairie.|
|White||Ratcliff Inn||The marker is located in Carmi, at 206 East Main Street.||38° 03.424||-088° 09.559||1/5/1966||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This building was erected in 1828 by James Ratcliff. Nicknamed 'Old Beaver' because of his energy, he was a founder of Carmi (1816), an innkeeper, merchant, and postmaster, and White County's first Clerk, Recorder, and Probate Judge. Abraham Lincoln lodged here in 1840. The inn was restored in 1960.|
|White||Southern Illinois College||The marker is located in Enfield, in a small plaza next to the Village Hall, directly across from the Post Office on Main Street, just east of US 45.||38° 05.967||-088° 20.222||1967||White County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Alma Mater of United States Senators William E, Borah, Idaho and Wesley L. Jones, Washington. This educational institution was chartered by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (1873). From the 1880's until 1935 it was a public school. It was purchased for use as a community center by the Kiwanis Club and Enfield citizens in 1907.|
|Whiteside||Dement House||The marker is located in Fulton, at the corner of Tenth Street and Fourth Avenue, on the south side of the Post Office.||41° 52.037||-090° 09.931||1968||Fulton Junior Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Dement House, an imposing, lavishly furnished stone hotel, was built on this lot in 1855. It was sold to satisfy judgments in 1858. In 1861 it was used to house the military academy, which was incorporated as a veteran's college in 1867. This institution was reorganized as a coeducational college in 1873 and continued as a military academy, 1903 to 1912. From 1918 to 1928 the building was a tire factory. It was razed in 1934.|
|Whiteside||Fulton's First Home||The marker is located in Fulton, in the extreme northeast part of town on the south side of 8th Avenue, just east of 17th Street.||41° 52.210||-090° 08.839||1966||Fulton Junior Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||John Baker, Fulton's first permanent settler, arrived in 1835 and built his three-room log cabin and outbuildings nearby. He lived in amity with the Indians and kept a rude hostelry. Later Fulton's first doctors, Daniel and Lucinda Reed, made the cabin their home, practiced medicine and also entertained travelers.|
|Whiteside||Illinois and Mississippi Canal||The maker is located in Rock Falls, by the upper dam across the Rock River, on the west side of the feeder canal, near the power plant parking lot.||41° 47.210||-089° 40.610||1974||Sterling-Rock Falls Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||Construction on the 'Hennepin Canal,' as it was commonly known, began in 1892 and was completed in 1907 at a cost of more than seven million dollars. A feeder canal from the Rock River at Rock Falls joined the main canal 29 miles to the south near Mineral. Utilization of the Hennepin Canal never reached expected proportions because of rapid technological advances in other modes of transportation, and in 1951 it was closed to traffic.|
|Whiteside||Lincoln in Sterling||The marker is located in Sterling, at 607 East Third Street, on the south side of the street.||41° 47.408||-089° 41.211||1967||Sterling-Rock Falls Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||On July 18, 1856, Abraham Lincoln spent the night in this house as the guest of William Manaham. Lincoln had been invited by Robert Lange Wilson to address a John C. Fremont rally in Sterling. Wilson was a member of the famous Long Nine of the Ilinois legislature during the 1830's.|
|Whiteside||Market Place, The||The marker is located in Fulton, at the corner of Second Street and Eighth Avenue. The maker is on the north side of Eighth Avenue, right at the foot of the levee, facing south.||41° 52.131||-090° 10.045||1965||Fulton Junior Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||Early Fulton communal activity centered around this trigon. The ferry, powered successively by man, horse and steam, landed at its north end. Stores, hotels, warehouses and saloons faced all three sides. Later the sawmills rented it to store huge piles of lumber. It became a city park in 1958.|
|Whiteside||Modern Woodmen||The marker is located in Fulton, on the east side of Fourth Street, at its intersection with Seventh Street (707 North Fourth Street), facing west.||41° 52.164||-090° 09.939||1970||Fulton Junior Woman's Club and The Illinois State Historical Society||This house was the head office of the Modern Woodmen of America, a fraternal life insurance society, when that organization first became an Illinois corporation in 1884. The house was the home of Dr. Henry M. Kennedy, head clerk of the fraternal society from 1884 to 1888. The Society was founded in 1883 by Joseph C. Root of Lyons, Iowa. Between 1886 and 1897 the office occupied three other sites in Fulton before being moved to Rock Island, where it is presently located.|
|Whiteside||Prophetstown||Rts. 78 & 172 north end of Prophetstown||41° 40.426||-089° 56.500||1934||State of Illinois||Prophetstown occupies the site of the village of the Winnebago Prophet, which the Illinois volunteers destroyed on May 10, 1832, in the first act of hostility in the Black Hawk War.|
|Will||Illinois and the Michigan Canal Office||801 S. State, Lockport||41° 35.419||-088° 03.433||1976||Will County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||In 1837 the town of Lockport was laid out by the Illinois and Michigan Canal Commissioners and a residence office was built. The first floor of the structure was completed in 1837, and became headquarters for construction and administration of the waterway. The canal, which extended ninety-six miles from the south branch of the Chicago River near Lake Michigan to the Illinois River at Peru, was in operation from 1848 to 1914. This building, now owned by the Will County Historical Society, houses the Illinois and Michigan Canal Museum.|
|Will||Joliet Mound||Industrial Road west of Larkin Avenue, south of Joliet||1972||Will County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This is the site of Mount Joliet, a natural eminence named for the explorer Louis Jolliet. It was 1350 feet long and 225 feet wide, with a flat top and steep escarpment, rising 140 feet above the Des Plaines River bed, of 60 feet above the bank. First shown on a 1674 map, the mound served for almost 175 years as a landmark for measuring distances on the river route from Chicago to the Mississippi. Completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1848 obviated the need for this information. The mound has since been leveled by quarrying.|
|Will||Plainfield House||503 Main, Plainfield||41° 36.687||-088° 12.255||1967||Will County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society||This was the site of the Arnold Tavern, first government franchised Post Office in present day Will County (1834-1845). The present building was the home of Dr. E.C. Wight, one of the first physicians in northern Illinois (1836), and a post-house which accomodated Chicago-Ottawa stage line passengers (1836-1886).|
|Will||Will-Joliet Bicentennial Park||Will-Joliet Bicentennial park, Inc. Bluff St. at 201 W. Jefferson St., Joliet||7/1/1988||The Illinois State Historical Society||Joliet, as 'Juliet,' had its beginnings in the 1830's here on old Bluff Street. Originally an Indian trail, this became the site of Joliet's first home, grist and saw mills, general stores, blacksmith, tinsmith and mason works, newspaper, school, theatre, hotels, church services, volunteer fire department and even the first bottling of soda pop. Meetings held in these pioneer homes and establishments led to the formation of both city and county governments. Bicentennial Park commemorates the vision of our great nation's 200th birthday in 1976.|
|Winnebago||Camp Grant||The marker is located south of Rockford on IL 2 at the bridge.||1934||State of Illinois||Camp Grant, one-half mile to the east, was established in 1917. Here was trained the 86th, or Black Hawk Division, of the National Army. Camp Grant was abandoned as a post in 1921.|
|Winnebago||Rockford College||Division & South Second, Rockford||1969||Rockford College and The Illinois State Historical Society||This plot of land is the original site of Rockford College, chartered in 1847 as Rockford Female Seminary. Students were enrolled in 1851. Bachelor's degrees were first conferred in 1882. One of five recipients that year was Jane Addams, who was to gain fame as a social reformer. Ten years later the school's present name was adopted. When the college became coeducational in 1955, it began an expansion program that led to relocation on the new campus in 1964.|
|Winnebago||Rockford, Illinois||1: 6 miles NE of Rockford on US 51, N Illinois 173 NE; 2: 3.5 miles SW of IL 2 & FA-179 junction||9/28/1966||Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society||On August 24, 1834, Thatcher Blake, Germanicus Kent, and two others settled on the west side of the Rock River ford and built a sawmill on Kent Creek. The following year Daniel Haight settled on the river's east bank. Kentville and Haightville combined to form Rockford in 1835. Following the Polish Rebellion of 1830-1831, exiles sought refuge in this country and in 1834 Congress granted them their choice of 36 sections of land in Illinois or Michigan. In 1836 Count Louis Chlopicki chose sections in this area, ignoring the occupants. However, these sections were not adjacent as the Act specified they should be, and the 'Polish Claim' was voided, thus ending a serius threat to the claims of the earlier settlers of Rockford and vicinity. Rockford became the home of John H. Manny, a leading manufacturer of agricultural implements, in 1853. His reaper was quite successful, but inventor Cyrus McCormick sued Manny for infringements of patent rights. The defense lawyers, including Abraham Lincoln and Edwin M. Stanton - later in Lincoln's cabinet - won the case in 1856. The Forest City Nine became nationally known in 1867 by defeating practically every important professional and amatuer team in the country. Alumni of this famous baseball team included A. G. Spalding, Roscoe Barnes, and Adrian C. Anson. Miss Julia C. Lathrop of Rockford was the first woman to head a U.S. Government agency. President William H. Taft appointed her chief of the Children's Bureau in Washington in 1912. She retained this position under President Woodrow Wilson.|
|Woodford||David Davis||The marker is located west of Bloomington on I-74 in the Eastbound rest area.||1973||Illinois Department of Transportation and The Illinois State Historical Society||David Davis, a distinguished Illinois jurist, was born in Maryland in 1815. He graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio and studied law at Yale. In 1836 he settled at Bloomington, Illinois, which was his home town the remainder of his life. From the commonplace activities of a pioneer lawyer, Davis turned to politics and was elected as a Whig to the lower House of the Illinois Legislature in 1844. Three years later he served in the State Constitutional Convention. In 1848 he was elected judge of the State's Eighth Judicial Circuit, then comprised of fourteen central Illinois counties. He served until 1862. Many lawyers of distinction, including Abraham Lincoln, practiced before him. During this time he and Lincoln became warm friends. Lincoln at times presided over the court when the judge was absent. Davis organized the forces that nominated Lincoln in the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1860 and then campaigned vigorously for Lincoln's election. Two years later Lincoln appointed Davis to the Supreme Court of the United States. During the 1870's, Davis disassociated himself from partison affairs, establishing his reputation as a political independent. In 1877 he resigned from the court after being elected to the United States Senate by the Illinois Legislature. He served as President Pro tempore from 1881 to 1883. He then retired to 'Clover Lawn,' his victorian mansion in Bloomington, where he died in 1886. His mansion, at Monroe and Davis Street, now preserved by the Illinois State Historical Library, is open to the public.|
|Woodford||Metamora Court House||The marker is located in Metamora, on the southeast corner of the City Park, on the north side Mount Vernon Road (IL 116) at its intersection with Davenport Street.||40° 47.441||-089° 21.717||1935||State of Illinois||As a member of the traveling bar of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, Lincoln came twice a year to Metamora, then the seat of Woodford County, to attend court in the courthouse which faces the north side of this park. David Davis, Robert G. Ingersoll and Adlai E. Stevenson were others who practiced here.|
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